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Internet of Things
The Internet of Things, referred to as IOT refers to collecting any monitoring, connection, and Interactive objects or processes, collect information needed for sound, light, heat, electricity, mechanics, chemistry, biology, location, etc., through various possible network access, realizing things and people’s pan Connect, implement intelligent perception, identification, and management of items and processes. The Internet of Things is an information carrier based on Internet, traditional telecommunications networks, which allows all common physical objects that can be independently addressed to network Internet access (IOT, Internet of Things), “Thousands of Internet”, It is an extended network based on the extension and extension of the Internet, a huge network formed by combining various information sensing equipment and the Internet to achieve interconnection of any time, any location, human, machine, and object. The basic feature of the substantial feature of the Internet of Things is seen from the communication object and the process, The information interaction between people and things is the core of the Internet of Things. The basic feature of the Internet of Things can be summarized as an overall perception, reliable transmission and intelligence processing. Overall Perceivement – Perceived Device, which can be perceived by radio frequency identification, two-dimensional code, intelligent sensor, and the like to sense various types of information of the object. Reliable transmission – By fusion of the Internet, the wireless network, transmitting the information of the object in real time, accurately, to communicate, sharing. Intelligent processing – uses various intelligent technologies, analyzes the data and information transmitted to the perception, and achieve intelligence of monitoring and control.

The function of the Internet processing information (1) The function of acquiring information is obtained. Mainly information about information, identification, information about information refers to the perception and sensitivity of the property status and its variation; the identification of information means that the status of the illustrated thing is expressed in a certain manner. (2) The function of transmitting information. Mainly, information transmission, transmission, reception, etc., finally transmits the acquisition status information and its change from time (or space) from time (or space) to another, which is often the communication process. (3) The function of processing information. Refers to the processing of information, generates new information using existing information or perceived information, which is actually a process of developing decisions. (4) The function of the application information. Refers to the event that the information is finally played, there are many performance forms, and it is more important that the object is pre-designed by adjusting the status of the object and its transform mode. The identification technique is described in the Internet of Things, and it has to be mentioned to Radio Frequency Identification, referred to as RFID. RFID is a simple wireless system consisting of an interrogator (or reader) and many transponders (or labels). The label consists of a coupling element and a chip, each tag has an electronic coding of the extended entry, attached to the object to identify the target object, which transmits RF information to the reader via an antenna, and the reader is a device that reads information. RFID technology allows items to “speak”. This gives a characteristic of the Internet of Things to track. That is to say, people can keep the exact position of the item and its surrounding environment. According to the retail analyst of Sanford C. Bernstein, this feature brings to the Internet of Things RFID can save Wal-Mart saves $ 8.35 billion per year, most of whom is because of the labor costs saved by the barcode that does not need to manually check the goods. . RFID helps the retail industry to solve two difficulties of goods breaking and loss (products that are lost by theft and supply chain), and now the aft, Wal-Mart’s loss is nearly 2 billion US dollars.

M2M system frame M2M is a simply referred to as Machine-to-Machine / Man, is a core interactive interaction with a machine terminal, Networked application and service. It will enable objects to achieve intelligent control. M2M technology involves five important technical parts: machine, M2M hardware, communication network, middleware, application. Based on the cloud computing platform and intelligent network, the data of the object can be made according to the data acquired by the sensor network, and the behavior of the object is changed. Take a smart parking lot, when the vehicle drivers or leave an antenna communication area, the antenna is exchanged two-way data exchange with the electronic identification card in the way in the way, from the electronic vehicle card, on the driver card Read the relevant information of the driver, automatically identify the electronic car card and driver card, and judge whether the car card is effective and the legitimacy of the driver card, the check-on carway control computer displays the license plate number and driving of the electronic car card and driver card. Information information.

Cloud computing is intended to put a plurality of costs relatively low computational entities over the network Integrate into a perfect system with powerful computing power, and allows end users to get these powerful computing services with advanced business models. If calculating capacity is more power generation, then from ancient stand-alone power generation mode to modern power plant centralized power mode, it is like now to turn to cloud computing models, and “cloud” is better than power plant, with single machine The powerful computing power cannot be comparable. This means that the computing power can also be circulated as a commodity, just like gas, water, electricity, convenient to take, cost is low, so that users do not need to be equipped with themselves. Unlike electricity through grid transmission, computing power is transmitted through a variety of wired, wireless networks. Therefore, the core concept of cloud computing is to continuously improve the processing power of “cloud”, and continue to reduce the processing burden of user terminals, ultimately make it simplified into a simple input and output device, and can enjoy “cloud” powerful calculations on demand Processing ability. The Internet of Things sense layer acquires a large amount of data information. After the network layer is transmitted, put it on a standard platform, and then use high-performance cloud computing to handle it, which gives these data intelligence, in order to eventually convert to end users .

Application field of the Internet of Things involves the surface, in the field of industrial, agriculture, environment, transportation, logistics, security, etc., effectively promotes these aspects. Intelligent development, making limited resources more reasonable use, thereby improving industry efficiency, efficiency. In home, medical health, education, financial and service industry, tourism, etc. have great improvements from service scope, service methods to the quality of services, and greatly improve people. Quality of life; although in the field of national defense military, the impact of Internet applications can not be underestimated, large to satellite, missile, aircraft, submarine and other equipment systems, small to single combat equipment The embedding of Internet of Things technology effectively enhances military intelligence, information, precision, and greatly enhances military fighting power and is the key to military changes in the future.

The application of the Internet of Things is not only a concept, but it has been used in many fields, but does not form large-scale use. There are many commonly used cases. For example: Internet sensor products have been applied in the Shanghai Pudong International Airport anti-intrusion system. ZigBee street lamp control system lights up Jinan Garden Expo Park. Internet of Things technology is mature in road traffic.

Smart home is the basis of the Internet of Things in the home application with the popularity of broadband services, and smart home products involve both square faces. No one in the family, can use the mobile phone and other product client remotely to operate smart air conditioning, adjust room temperature, and even learn users, so that automatic temperature control operations, users can enjoy ice in hot summer home Coordination; through the client to achieve smart light bulb switch, control the brightness and color of the bulb, etc.; Let you use electricity, arrange resource usage and expenditure budget; intelligent weight scale, monitor the motion effect. The built-in can monitor the advanced sensor of blood pressure and fat, the lack procedure proposes a health suggestion according to the physical state; the intelligent toothbrush is connected to the client, supplying the teeth time, brushing position reminder, can produce chart according to the data of the brushing teeth, the health of the oral cavity; intelligent camera , Windows sensors, smart doorbells, smoke detectors, smart alarms, etc. are indispensable safety monitoring equipment. You will go out in time to check out any of the safety hidden dangers in any time, place in place, any safety hazard. Various home life is more relaxed because of the Internet of Things.

Related relationships and the relationship between the concepts formed in people’s minds are interdependent. The concept of this matter is the reflection of the essence of this matter in people’s minds. The Internet of Things is also a thing. Therefore, the relationship between the Internet of Things and the Internet is also the relationship between interdependence. Leaving the Internet, the concept of the Internet of Things is the wood, passive water; there is an Internet necessarily forming the relevant Internet concept corresponding to it in people’s minds, will not be: only the Internet, and there is no internet concept . This is the identification of the IoT and the Internet concept. Of course, in scientific practice, the scientific concepts formed in people’s minds, with the former scientific thinking period, people understand the daily life concepts that surrounding things, and scientific concepts can also be scientific as a performance of a certain understanding. The results of knowledge and scientific research are present. The concept of the Internet of Things is also a scientific concept. As mentioned earlier, the Internet of Things is based on the Internet concept, extends its client and extends to a network concept between any item and any item, information exchange, and communication. It is also the results and summary of Internet knowledge and research. The global climate abnormality in recent years is frequent, the sudden and harmfulness of the disasters is further increased. The Internet can monitor the unsafeness of the environment in real time, prevention, real-time warning, and timely adopt measures in advance. To reduce the threat of disasters on human life and property. The University of Buffalo raised the deep sea Internet project early in 2013, and the special treatment in the deep sea, analyzed the water related situation, the prevention and treatment of marine pollution, the detection of seabed resources, and even the tsunami can also provide more Reliable warning. The project was tested in local lake water, successful, provided a foundation for further expansion of use. Utilization of Internet of Things technology can intelligently realize the indicator data in the air, soil, forest, water resources, and play a huge role in improving the human living environment.

Although the development of the Internet of Things has gradually formed, all countries have invested in huge human, material resources, and financial resources to study and develop. However, there is still a lot of problems that need to be overcome in technology, management, cost, policy, security, etc., which are specific to the following: Technical standards Unity and coordination However, the standard of traditional Internet is not suitable for the Internet of Things. The data multi-source heterogenesis of the Internet of Things, different devices have different interfaces, different technical standards; network layers, application layers are also different network protocols and systems with different network types. structure. The unified Internet of Things architecture established, and the unified technical standards are the problems that the Internet of Things is now facing. Management Platform Issues The Internet of Things itself is a complex network system, and the application field is in all walks of life, and it is inevitable. Crossability. If this network system does not have a special comprehensive platform to manage information, there will be a large amount of information redundancy, repetitive work, and repeated construction, resulting in resource waste. Each industry has its own independent, high cost, low efficiency, and reflects the advantages of the Internet of Things, it is bound to affect the promotion of the Internet of Things. IoT is now in urgent need of a unified management platform that integrates resources in various industries, enabling it to form a complete industrial chain mode. The

exists cost problem , it is currently Countries have actively supported the Internet of Territories. Behind the seemingly hundred flowers, it is possible to truly invest and have a small number of Internet of Things projects. For example, implementing the most basic electronic tag and card reader of RFID technology, its cost price has not been able to reach the expectation of the company, the cost price is not high; the sensing network is a multi-hop-hop network, which is very easy to get environmental factors or human factors. Destruction, to ensure smooth network, and can safely transfer reliable information in real time, and the maintenance cost of the network is high. The development of the Internet of Things can only be empty during the cost that the cost is universally acceptable. Safety problem The traditional Internet has matured, and there is a wide range of applications. As an emerging product, the Internet of Things is more complicated, and there is no unified standard, and security issues in all aspects have been highlighted. Its key implementation technique is a sensor network, in the natural environment of sensor exposure, especially some sensors placed in harsh environments, how to maintain network integrity for long-term new requirements, the sensing network must have self The better function. This is not only affected by environmental factors, but the impact of human factors is more serious. RFID is another key implementation technology, which is in advance to place the electronic tag into the article to achieve real-time monitoring, which will cause some personal privacy to expose some personal privacy, there is a problem. Not only personal information security, now there is quite common among enterprises, and once the network is attacked, the consequences will not be imagined. How to use the process of using the Internet of Things is critical to the balance of informationization and security.

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