Top 20 DevOps Interview Questions and Answers

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There is an increasing demand for professionals who have DevOps skills these days. The number of organizations adopting DevOps has significantly grown over the last few years. And, there are obvious reasons for this. According to the latest report from Puppet – the software configuration management tool, companies implementing DevOps principles deploy code up to 30 times frequent as compared to their competitors.

And, fewer than 50% of cases fail out of these deployments by this report. This evidently shows some promising future of DevOps jobs in the information technology field. Here, we can take up some DevOps interview questions that can help you to get an edge on interviews which demand people who can face challenging situations in software production & development stages. ? ?

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Imagine you want to get a DevOps job. But, you are inexperienced in any of its concepts or practices. However, you know some programming languages like Java, Python, etc. Here, you may not find too many opportunities in your desired domain. But your programming background can help you to crack many DevOps interviews if you have a valid professional DevOps certification. Before proceeding to such a certification, it’s good for you to check a comprehensive guide for DevOps interview questions and answers.

This article will be a useful resource in this manner. So, without any further ado, let’s see how to crack DevOps interview with minimal effort.?

DevOps Interview Questions and Answers

1. What is DevOps? Is it a tool, framework or programming language?

Answer: None of these! Simply saying, it’s a blended word formed from two words, development and operations. Actually, it’s the practice of collaborating development and operations teams in a software project in order to overcome organizational silos and to achieve improved productivity in delivering products and services as per customer need.

2. What can a DevOps Engineer do?

Answer: The main objective for DevOps is to address some crucial challenges faced by development and operations teams in a traditional SDLC project. For developers, they may have to wait a lot before code deployment completion. Also, they may face troubles in managing old, new and pending codes at the same time. For the operations team, managing uptime will be the main issue. And for the operations team, there would be difficulty in handling less effective infrastructure management automation tools. DevOps can minimize these efforts.

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3. How DevOps Collaborates Development & Operations teams?

Answer: This is one of the frequently asked DevOps Interview Questions in recent times. We’ve discussed the common problems development and operations teams face. DevOps implements a “continuous integration” approach to faster deployment, testing, and feedback mechanism so as to eliminate waiting time for the software development team. For operations, DevOps have methods such as “continuous monitoring”, “configuration management”, “virtualization”, etc. With all these methods, DevOps is buzzing towards a highly automated, standardized process with a handful of tools reducing the need for human intervention.? ?

4. What made you take the decision to become a DevOps engineer?

Answer: If you are making a career shift from an operations role into a DevOps engineer, this would be one of the pivotal DevOps interview questions you may face in a DevOps coding interview. Most of us may try to answer this question like this- “Development is my career goal and I had a strong desire to move here from long back”. However, this isn’t the right way to say. You should say like this – “I want to see myself as part of an organization that has processes where engineering and operations teams are working smartly and productively than ever. And, it’d be great if I could be part of the entire software delivery system from scratch to finish.

5. What are the prerequisites for the implementation of DevOps?

Answer: Followings are the useful prerequisites for the implementation of DevOps –

  • Proper communication across the team
  • Commitment at the senior level
  • Version Control Software
  • Automated testing
  • Automated tools for compliance
  • Automated deployment

6. List out some of the most popular DevOps tools. Did you use any of these tools?

Answer: Here is the list of some most popular DevOps tools.

  1. Git –?It’s a well-known DevOps tool used for distributed source code management.
  2. Jenkins – This tool is a continuous integration tool that provides running tests on a non-developer machine when new code pushed into the source repository.
  3. Puppet –?A cross-platform configuration management tool that can manage infrastructure as code.
  4. Raygun –?This is a DevOps tool meant for error and crash reporting.
  5. Docker –?Docker is a tool used at the time of its continuous deployment stage of DevOps to achieve containerization of OS and its dependencies.

Well, there’re a lot of other tools out there. Here we just put some mentions. Try to find out more such tools to prepare more DevOps interview questions based on those. If you’re experienced in DevOps, you’d have some working knowledge in any of DevOps tools. But make sure that you’re responding honestly while answering any of DevOps interview questions even the question seemed to be confusing.

7. What’s the role of AWS in DevOps?

Answer: Amazon Web Services (AWS) offers powerful features that support process automation and continuous delivery. On the other hand, DevOps provides unprecedented practices to grow an organization’s capability to deliver products and services at a high pace. Undoubtedly, the blend of these two elements will have a huge impact on an organizations workflow. It’ll automate manual tasks, allows teams to manage complex environments etc.

So if you are opting for a DevOps engineer position that requires AWS skills, you may have to prepare for AWS DevOps interview questions. If you’ve some prior AWS knowledge, many of the Amazon DevOps interview questions won’t feel tough to you.

8. What are the most used scripting languages for DevOps?

Answer: DevOps was a further step towards “automate all” philosophy. That is – writing most of the infrastructure required for an organization in lines of code. We learned about IaaC scripts that are written in JSON or YAML. Moreover, template files required for DevOps infrastructure is also written in YAML while infrastructure deployment scripts in Python. Here, applications are written in JavaScript that is deployed through pipelines are written in Groovy.?

Moving to the development side, we can see Python as the most used language here. Go, C, JavaScript, and Ruby are also recommended for DevOps programming.

9. DevOps and Agile: Are they synonymous or different items?

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Answer: Perhaps, it’d be one of the confusing Amazon DevOps interview questions for the beginners. But once you understood the basics of these two, it won’t be a troublesome case. We know DevOps as a software development culture that creates a collaborative environment across software development and operations teams in an organization. While DevOps is dealing with the collaboration across development and operations team, agile addresses issues within the software development team and the end users. This is the simple and fundamental difference.?

10. What is CI/CD in DevOps?

Answer: Continuous Integration (CI) in DevOps targets at collecting work from individual developers and put it into a central repository infrequent intervals as early as possible. This helps to detect integration bugs from the early stage of product development.

DevOps Continuous Delivery (CD) ensures the building, testing, and releasing of bug-free software into production line infrequent intervals by means of an automation system. This system verifies that the development team automates testing and deployment processes as well for making sure that the code is always in deployable?form.

11. Is DevOps Continuous Delivery and Continuous Deployment are the same?

Answer: Even these terms look similar, they are distinct differences between these two. Continuous delivery aims at keeping the code base at a deployable stage at any time. This doesn’t mean that the project is 100% done but it’s successfully written, tested and debugged and can deploy at any time we want.

Continuous deployment is a term that indicates the automatic deployment of development changes into the production environment. It’s is often considered as the next step of continuous delivery.

12. Is testing necessary before production in a DevOps environment?

Answer: A tech recruiter who’s conducting DevOps interview questions may never want to hire a candidate for a DevOps position if the candidate still sticks on to the concept of information silos in an organization. The recruiter may expect you to know how DevOps concept benefits the entire process of IT projects in your organization.

So for this question, it is fine to answer like this – “DevOps is all about carrying out continuous testing process from development to delivery where every member of the project shares the same responsibility. This will help to assure quality throughout the process utilizing the time of everyone in the most productive manner.”? ?

13. What are CI Pipelines and DevOps Assembly Lines?

Answer: In simple words, a pipeline is a set of jobs that are executed in several stages. If there are multiple jobs in a stage, they’ll be executed in parallel. In a continuous integration (CI)?pipeline in DevOps, developers send the code they wrote into a repository for automated integration testing immediately after the code’s produced. The code will be tested within minutes and developers get informed any errors occurred during testing. Then, the developer will re-work on the code and this process continues until the code is error-free.

The intention of DevOps assembly lines is to connect and automate actions performed by several departments in a software development project. Configuration management and infrastructure provision is an operations activity. The responsibility of semantic versioning and approval gates are assigned to release managers. All these activities are part of a typical DevOps assembly line. CI pipeline itself is a subset of this assembly line. Altogether, DevOps assembly line can be called as a pipeline of pipelines.

14. What is IaaC and how is it implemented using AWS??

Answer: Infrastructure as a Code (IaaC) or programmable infrastructure is a DevOps practice to?make infrastructure management process as easy, reliable, and fast. Amazon has a special service called AWS CloudFormation?that helps to set up your Amazon Web Services resources. This service allows using a single file to model, all resources needed for AWS applications to run for an account.

Here, we have to write a CloudFormation script that contains infrastructure details that need to be deployed, and AWS will take care of deploying as per our requirement. This script can be written on either JSON or YAML.

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15. Why we need Git in DevOps?

Answer: Git is a tool to perform version control. It can be easily associated with DevOps ecosystem. Developers can use this tool to manage their code versions over time. Changes made to the code will incrementally stack up to the existing code creating a new version. Anyhow, it’s possible to rollback to an earlier code version. One major feature of Git is its distributed structure so that the developers can work with an offline copy of the code base.

16. What are Anti-Patterns of DevOps?

Answer: Anti-Patterns denotes the warning signals when our software team moving away from proper DevOps implementation. Here, they diminish the entire DevOps idea. Root Cause analysis, Information Silos, Human errors, Criticizing mentality, etc. are few examples of Anti-Patterns of DevOps. Let’s take the ‘Criticizing mentality’ as a case. As you can imagine it’s the culture of criticizing others for the mistake they made without taking consideration of a root cause analysis of the problem.?

17. Can DevOps be applied to the waterfall software development model?

Answer: Surely, we can. But, it won’t be a right move if we seriously want to save our companies’ resources. We’ll be surely able to optimize DevOps build processes by means of automation if we follow the waterfall approach. But in this case, no matter how faster we develop the code, it will not get end users until the next release cycle. The same is the case with DevOps operations side. This delay in product delivery will diminish even the core purpose of DevOps integration.?

18. What is the role of configuration management in DevOps?

Answer: In software development, configuration management recapitulates the necessary items that are required for a successful project completion. Since DevOps spans across both development and operations faces of software creation, it requires a comprehensive configuration management plan to support it. There are 3 major elements in each configuration management in DevOps- A source code depository, An Artifact Repository, and a Configuration Management Database.

19. What is the ‘CHEF’ tool used in DevOps?

Answer: Chef is a popular configuration management tool used to control and manage the infrastructure of software production. It uses a pure-Ruby, domain-specific language for writing system configuration files in DevOps. As these files implement IaaC (Infrastructure as a Code) feature of DevOps, these can be easily tested and version controlled. Although this tool has an architecture almost similar to puppet tool, there’s a special component in Chef that lacks in Puppet. It’s an element called “workstation” which acts as a middleman between users and the tool itself.

20. What do you know about DevOps Toolchain?

Answer: Here’s the Last but not least among DevOps interview questions that can repeatedly ask during many DevOps interviews. A DevOps toolchain is simply referred to the set of tools that aid the movement of code through various stages of software development and production. Loosely, we can say that there are seven stages in DevOps lifecycle – Plan, Create, Verify, Packaging, Release, and Configure & Monitor. Now, there isn’t a single toolkit that’s capable of performing these tasks. Anyhow for each of these tasks, there are specific tools available now.

Final Words

Well, we can wind up for now. Like any other technical interviews, it’ll be good for you if you could reframe your answers cater to the organization for which you’re interviewing. For example, some companies may need people who have AWS DevOps skills while some other prefer Azure DevOps skills. Whatever be the platform, most of the DevOps interview questions we discussed here will be applicable to both the cases. To help you crack the interview, we’ll periodically try to expand this list of DevOps interview questions and answers. So, be prepared and revise these questions from time to time.

Certifications act as an add-on in your resume and thus help you crack the interview. So, if you are an AWS DevOps engineer preparing for the DevOps interview, demonstrate your skills to your interviewer with a certification. We’ll recommend you to join Whizlabs online course and practice tests for AWS Certified Developer Associate and AWS Certified DevOps Engineer Professional exams to get certified. A certification and this ultimate list of top DevOps interview questions and answer will prove an invaluable resource for your next job.

Good Luck!

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