A. Mushroom cultivation season
Mushroom Weibei dry girdle area has a large temperature difference. The air humidity is low and the season changes quickly. Seeds can sown earlier and scheduled in mid-August-early September.
B. Guanzhong Plain
Arranged in late August-mid September along the area. Of course, mushroom farmers who have kiln streams and fruit cellars. It can piled up and fermented right after the wheat straw harvest, and the seeds can sown at the end of July and harvested in late August.
C. After cornstalk harvesting
After the corn stalks are dry, you can do the second round of sowing. Use truncated corn stalks + cow dung and sow in December – January. Overwintering, mushroom production starts in March in spring and ends by the end of May. Yield and quality have been tested to approximate wheatgrass.
D. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus
The main ingredients are wheatgrass, corn stalks and cow dung. The auxiliary materials are oil residue, phosphate fertilizer, lime, gypsum and urea.
1. Start from wheat harvest in June
Collect wheat straw, which should piled up in the open space from the sowing shed. No need to crush when piling up.
2. When corn stalks are collected
When the corn stalks are dry in November, they can be crushed and used when they are not green, or cut into two sections for fermentation. Cow dung should be pulled back in advance to cool half dry and mash, and then pile up 2 meters wide and 1.5 meters high. Long unlimited, natural fermentation, the temperature rises to 75 ℃.
3. about 15 days
Turn the pile once, switch the position inside and outside and let it ferment naturally. Cow manure can also dried and pounded and stored as a reserve. In addition, chicken manure and pig manure can be added for cultivation. The manure should not mixed with soil.
4. Oil residue
It is better to use vegetable oil residue, cotton oil residue can also be used.
5. Soybean stalk
Fermented material with a small amount of beanstalk has the best effect. Phosphorus fertilizer, urea, gypsum and lime should be prepared.
6. Mushroom pre-wetting
Before building the pile, sprinkle a layer of lime powder on the wheat sheet pile and wet the wheat grass with a water hose. Let it soften for three days, or use lime water to splash on it directly.
7. Mushroom pile building
When building the pile, pull all the weighed auxiliaries to the front of the pile. First, sprinkle a layer of lime on the ground and lay a layer of dry grass on the surface. Its thickness is about 30cm, width is 2.3m and length is about 28m for 1 mu of material.
8. Mushroom in 5-6 layers of pile material
A layer of 25-30 cm of wheat grass, with a layer of lime sprinkled on top. A layer of cow dung (organic fertilizer), sprinkle a layer of oil residue, phosphate fertilizer, gypsum (use 1/2 amount).
In the top two layers are scattered into, the auxiliary materials can be mixed, divided into 6 parts of each layer scattered a point, and then lay the material. So a layer of grass, a layer of auxiliary materials to build a pile, sprinkled after the start of watering. The material surface will be watered once, the material around to vertical neat, according to the same method to make a pile. The total height is 1.5 meters, and the top is turtle-back shape. Cover the fermentation with book film.
10. Mushroom pile turning for the first time
After the pile is built for 6 days, the temperature inside the pile reaches 70-7℃, and the pile can be turned over after it is stable. The method of turning the pile is to start withdrawing the material from one side of the pile and rebuilding the pile on the other side. Insert wooden sticks or bamboo poles, i.e. roll the pile.
E. Mushroom turning pile
To put the top material of the pile on one side and the back clip in the middle. The outer layer material is put on the inner layer and the inner layer material is put on the outer layer.
(1) Lower mushroom material
Pile on the top layer, shake loose the culture material while turning. Mix the culture material evenly, exclude the waste gas from the material and add fresh air.
(2) Mushroom put the remaining
Lime and gypsum are sprinkled on in layers, when the material is dry and yellow or white, it means insufficient moisture. To pile material while sprinkling water to replenish the moisture. Every 50 cm erect a wooden stick, pile up after the stick shaking to draw. That is, there are many ventilation holes on the material.
(3) Mushroom every other day
Remove the film and exhaust the exhaust air, which also helps to warm up. About 3 days later, the temperature can rise to over 70℃, keep it for 2 days, and turn it for the second time.
(4) Mushroom turning for the second time
After the first adjustment of moisture, add auxiliary materials. Adding ventilation holes, the material temperature rises quickly. About 5-6 days to turn the pile, using the same method to turn. At this time, the pile can be turned from one end, row of wooden sticks to leave the ventilation holes, and cover with film after finishing. Turn the pile for the third time after five days in the same way, and spray dicofol around after turning.
(5) The fourth mushroom pile turning
After three times, the material has rotten, cooked standard for wheat grass brown-red. Hand a pull that is broken, material hold not stained hands. At this time for the fourth time to turn the pile, is to turn the material surface while spraying deodorant or formaldehyde and acaricide. Check the pH, PH value 8-8.5 is appropriate. After turning, bored for two days, then you can prepare cool material for seeding.
(6) Mushroom discharge
When the fourth turn of the pile can sown, the key to identify the degree of maturity of the material. The culture material should uniformly rotted, brownish red in color, soft and flexible in straw. Pull by hand that break, no ammonia smell, no odor. No sticky, no black, loose material is the standard.
(7) Mushroom PH value 7-8
There can’t be entrained material, otherwise there will ghost umbrella mushroom etc. occurring when cultivating.
F. Mushroom specific practice
Spread out the material pile, exhaust the waste gas, can be cooled outside. Also can be directly into the shed, according to the open border requirements of different sheds. Different sites, rows, distance, thick waste are different. Dosing and piling, culture material recipe, amount per acre. (If you have automatic irrigation equipment, you can use more efficient and faster water soluble fertilizer)
5000kg, boron fertilizer 200kg, fresh cow manure 10 cubic meters, urea 40kg, cotton seed husk 500kg, oil residue 200kg, lime 250kg, gypsum 200kg, PH value about 8.
②Mushroom corn stalk
2500 kg, wheat straw 2500 kg, fresh cow dung 6 cubic meters, cotton bark 500 kg, oil residue 200 kg, phosphate fertilizer 200 kg gypsum 200 kg, urea 40 kg, lime 250 kg.
According to its own geographical environment, whether it is cultivated in greenhouse, big bow shed, big field or kiln, the pile fermentation is built in the feeding place near from the cultivation site and water and electricity should convenient.
④Mushroom pile fermentation
The steps are pre-wetting – pile building – first pile turning – second pile turning – third pile turning – fourth pile turning – pile withdrawal, totaling about 28 days.Selection of greenhouse and open field and opening of border
⑤ Cultivation of mushrooms
The existing greenhouse shed, large bow shed, small and medium shed can be cultivated.
⑥If mushrooms need to build a shed
In the land where wheat has been harvested, the bow shed goes north-south and the greenhouse goes east-west. The greenhouse can made of old film or black film, with straw curtain. Generally, 30-50 meters of shed length is appropriate.
G. Mushroom greenhouse open border method
1. Straight border
Generally, three rows of material and two walkways (4m shed), or four rows of material and three walkways. The two sides of the border are 60 cm each, the middle border is 1.2 m, and the aisles are 70 cm each.
2. Horizontal border
Leave a 70 cm wide ditch in the center of the shed on both sides for horizontal borders, and put 80 cm-1 m of material on each border. The borders are spaced 40 cm apart, so finish the work and figure out how many borders can be made for the length of the shed. Regardless of the method of border opening, level the border in advance. Pull out the weeds, and irrigate with a large amount of water the day before spreading the material. The humidity is suitable so that the soil in the shed can be squeezed into pieces by hand. Once you pull it, you can sow the seeds and sprinkle 25 kg of lime per mu.
3. Open field opening method
Open the border straight to a border width of 1 meter and a straight path width of 70 cm (leaving 10 cm on each side for taking soil). The border is 20 cm deep, which is an underground border, and the border is 20 cm above the ground, which is an above-ground border. Irrigate the soil water well, and then draw a line to spread the material and cool the material to discharge the waste gas.
4. Mushroom spreading and sowing
The seeding of mushrooms should done in sunny and cloudy days, not in rainy days. After the material is drenched by rain, it will increase the water content and infect the mushroom easily. Sunny day noon strong sunshine also should not sown, so as not to sun kill the strain.
5. Spread material
Withdraw the fermented material from the pile and put it on the bed with fresh lime and let it cool down to below 30℃. Then shake and mix the culture material and spread it on the bed of tortoise-backed, the thickness of the material is about 20 cm, and the thickness of the material is uniform. Sow the seeds while spreading the material.
H. Mushroom seeding method
There are sowing, hole sowing and layer sowing. The seeds of wheat grain should sown in layers, regardless of the greenhouse and open field cultivation can be sown.Use 1.5-2 bottles of seeds per square meter, the seeds should white, thick, no yellow water, no shrinkage, no mites.
1. Firstly, put the seed bottles
Wash it in 0.2% potassium permanganate solution, and disinfect the surface before use. Break up the seed bottle and put the seed pieces into a clean pot. Crush it by hand and take two-thirds of the strain. Scatter it once to the material surface, then use fork or hand to grab and lift the culture material.
2. Let the mushroom block
Let the pieces fall into the material layer and level the material surface. Then sprinkle the remaining one-third of the seed evenly on the surface of the material, and finally use a wooden board or the bottom of the basin to slightly flatten the surface of the material. Cover with soil immediately. The thickness is about 4cm.
3. Special attention
The area should not be too large when scattering seeds, how much soil should scattered to cover how much, in addition the greenhouse can used to cover the soil after 7 days of sowing.