A. Overview of honeysuckle
Honeysuckle is also known as double flower, Lonicera japonica, etc. Mainly produced in Shandong, Henan, Hunan and other provinces, the quality of Shandong production is the best. Honeysuckle likes warm, humid, sunny climate, adaptability is very strong. Cold-resistant, drought-resistant, water-resistant, plain, mountainous areas can cultivated, the soil requirements are not strict, can planted using barren slopes.
B. Propagation method of honeysuckle
Honeysuckle has seed propagation method and cuttings propagation method.
1. Honeysuckle seed propagation
In the fall when the seeds are ripe to collect the mature fruit, placed in water and rubbed, bleached off the skin and impurities. Retrieve the full seeds that sink to the bottom of the water, dry and store. In the fall, you can plant as you come.
2. The second year of spring sowing
Can sand hidden method of seed treatment overwintering, and then inserted in the spring after the opening of the freeze. In the seedbed open row spacing with cm wide ditch, the seeds evenly scattered into the ditch. Cover with 3 cm thick soil, compaction, about 10 days to seedlings. Seedlings to strengthen field management, the fall of that year or the next spring seedlings can be planted in the production field. The amount of seed sown per mu is about 1-1.5 kg.
3. Honeysuckle cuttings propagation
Honeysuckle vine stems growing season can propagated by cuttings. Select the vine stem growing vigorously branches, cut off about 30 cm long plugs, each with at least 3 nodes.
4. Remove the leaves
Cut the lower end into a slant and tie it into a small handle. Soak the socket with plant hormone IAA 500 mg/kg (500 PPm) and slenderize while fresh. Plant rows 150 cm X 150 cm apart, dig holes, and insert 3-5 cuttings per hole. Leave 1/3 of the stems on the ground, with at least one bud showing on the soil surface, step firmly and compact. Water thoroughly, about 1 month to root and germinate. You can also breed the plugs into seedlings first and then transplant them to the field.
C. Honeysuckle field management
1. Mid-tillage and weeding
After the transplanting becomes alive, it is necessary to mid-till and weed single 3-4 times a year. 3 years later, the vine stems grow luxuriantly. Depending on the weed situation, the number of weeding can be reduced.
2. Fertilization of honeysuckle
Fertilizer should be combined with weed control every spring and fall. Farmyard manure,, potash and chemical fertilizers are available (if you have automated irrigation equipment, you can use more efficient and faster water soluble fertilizers). Chasing 30-40 kg of urea per mu, under the plant to cultivate soil to protect the roots.
3. Repairing and shaping
Honeysuckle plants that have been growing for 1-2 years have irregular growth of vine stems. It is disorderly and needs to be reshaped to facilitate the growth and flowering of the crown.
4. Shaping and pruning methods
Within 1-2 years after planting, mainly cultivate upright and sturdy trunk. When the trunk height is 30-40 cm, cut off the top tip to promote the lateral buds to sprout into technology.
5. Next spring
After sprouting, select 4-5 sturdy branches in the upper part of the main stem. As the main branches, they are borne in two layers. Keep 5-6 pairs of buds in the first branch from the main branch and cut off the top buds.
Then keep 6-7 pairs of buds in the second branch from the first branch, and then remove the hook-shaped shoots from the flowering branches growing on the second branch. Through this pruning of the honeysuckle plant from the original twisted growth into a well-defined branches, evenly distributed, ventilated and light.
7. Main stem
Sturdy and upright corymb-shaped shrub-like flower pier, conducive to the formation of flowering branches, more flower buds. Honeysuckle repair school shaping to improve the impact of yield is great, generally can improve the yield of more than 50%.
8. Pest and disease control
Powdery mildew on honeysuckle leaves is more harmful, should repair technology shaping. Improve the ventilation conditions, in addition, available powder rust nin 1500 times for leaf spray. Other pests and diseases can be controlled by conventional methods.
D. Honeysuckle pruning
Honeysuckle pruning is the key to increase the yield, which can increase the yield by about 40%. Through pruning in the poor standing conditions of mountainous areas can be harvested buds 2-3 times a year. Pruning should master the principle of trunk shaping, strong branches lightly pruned, weak branches heavily pruned, old branches retracted.
That is, the seedling period to the main plastic, combined with pruning. Cultivate 1-2 year old seedlings into a strong and upright trunk, and leave the trunk 30-40cm high in winter.
②Cut off the upper tip
to promote lateral buds to sprout into branches. The next summer, select 4-6 strong lateral branches on the main stem for the main branch, leaving 25-30cm long and leaving 2-3 levels of lateral branches in turn. After 2-3 years of pruning to make the flower pier become an upright table umbrella crown with obvious trunk, balanced distribution of branches and large dispersal area, in order to facilitate uniform light.
Pruning 4 years later into the mature stage, that is, the beginning of the blooming period. The winter and spring pruning of the mature period should master the weakness to leave strong, to bend to take the straight essentials. The dead branches, hairy branches, too dense branches cut off, in order to concentrate nutrients for the growth of flowering branches.
The main purpose of the plant is to cut back the branches to the middle of the 2-3 year old branches in order to promote the sprouting of new branches and rejuvenation. After 6 years, it enters the middle age, shorten the periphery and thin the weak branches.
⑤ For years without pruning
Adult honeysuckle with trailing branches and flower buds confined to the periphery of the branches. The yield is very low and needs to be pruned and transformed. The method is to clear the pier short cut, leaving enough dry branches. Cut off too many branches, dead branches, weak branches. The next year after the first flowering will be short cut flowering branches, each time after the flowering are cut branches. Make creeping branches gradually upright, so that the inner chamber ventilation and light.
⑥ Older honeysuckle
Pruning honeysuckle after 15 years, began to senescence, need to restore the renewal. The main method is to carry out retraction pruning, long branch picking. Cultivate new main stem to make it productive.
⑦ After the second year of harvesting
After the first crop of flowers, a repeat pruning is carried out. The method is to keep 2-3 nodes of leafy branches and cut off the upper part. And cut off the thin and weak branches without flower buds in the inner chamber, cut off the flat and pendulous heads of branches. The second branching upward is encouraged to improve the yield of the second crop of flowers.
E. Honeysuckle transplants
In early spring before sprouting or in autumn and winter dormant period. Dig holes on the planting site at a spacing of 150 cm between rows and 120 cm between plants. The width and depth are 30-40 cm each, and 5 kg of soil fertilizer is mixed with the subsoil in each hole.
Plant 1 strong seedling in each hole, fill with fine soil and compact, step firmly, and water thoroughly with root water.
2. After survival
Make the creeping vine form a dwarf shrub with upright single plant by shaping and pruning.
Field management of honeysuckle is the main link of abundant production. Field cultivation management generally includes reasonable arrangement of group structure, mid-tillage and weeding, fertilization and watering, and pest and disease control.
The relevant contents of dense planting, pruning and shaping, as well as the routine weeding and fertilizing and watering are for producers to apply in field management.
F. Harvesting and processing
Honeysuckle blooms in the third year after transplanting. Generally in mid to late May to pick the first crop of flowers, after an interval of one month to pick the third and fourth crop of flowers. Harvesting period must be before the buds are open, when the buds from green to white. The upper part is inflated, the lower part is green when. Picked honeysuckle for the “two white flowers”, the flower buds completely white when the flowers harvested called “big white needle”. Picked flower buds should be dried or dried in time, do not pile mold. General mu yield of about 150 kg, to the body, no miscellaneous leaves, bud color, the smell is good.