A. Characteristics of lotus
Lotus is one of the traditional ten famous flowers in China. It is one of the main cultivated flowers in urban garden waterscape species and is loved by people for its noble quality of “being undefiled by mud”. China is the distribution center and cultivation center of lotus in the world. At present, there are two genera of lotus in the world, Chinese lotus and American yellow lotus.
B. Cultivation of lotus
There are three kinds of lotus cultivation: pond cultivation, pot cultivation and submerged water cultivation.
1. Pond cultivation
The bottom of the pond should be a mud bottom, and the average depth of the pond bottom from the water surface is almost more than 0.5 meters. Water level depth requirements, the deepest can not exceed 1.2 meters, the shallowest can not bottom 0.2 meters. The pH of the water body is PH 5-8. natural pit ponds within three years without fertilizer, new ponds according to 100 kg per mu of organic fertilizer. Or 30 kg of compound fertilizer per mu, fertilizer should be fully mixed with the substrate.
2. first put the pond water clean
Plant and row spacing of 1-1 meters, the top buds facing south when carrying the plant. Tilt 20 degrees downward and insert into the soil with the tail section exposed. Be careful not to touch the top buds, and then gently compact the soil so that the seed roots float to the surface when the water is barely filled. Irrigation must be shallow in the early stage of planting, and water will be added gradually for root growth. The depth should as deep as the floating leaves floating on the water surface, and the standard water depth can filled only after the standing leaves are raised.
3. Potted tank cultivation
Choose an appropriate pot according to the species and number of plants to be cultivated. Generally between 45-150 cm (except for the bowl lily variety). The pots are filled with artificially configured potting soil or natural pond mud. The potting soil does not have to filled to the brim to allow for sufficient water storage and is mixed with water in the right amount to form a paste. When planting, use one hand to hold the end of the root and the other hand to protect the top bud of the root.
4. Submerged cultivation
The potted lotus planted by the above method will be submerged in water and can placed according to the design requirements of the geometric shape of the pattern. However, the water level must be controlled according to different growth periods. Generally speaking, the water level should be controlled within 3-5 cm in the early stage of growth. When the leaves grow out in gradually increase the water level to 30-40 cm is appropriate. The specific depth should depend on the size of the species.
C. Management methods of lotus
Lotus is a long sunlight plant. Pools and ponds should set up with consideration of ventilation and sunlight, with less than 8-10 hours of light during the growing period. It may cause less flowers or no flowers, and poor ventilation is prone to diseases. Lotus is a water-holding plant, and the depth of water should be controlled in each growth period. It should neither be too deep nor dry water.
D. Control of pests and diseases of lotus
The common diseases of lotus include leaf spot, brown spot, black spot and so on. The disease onset is usually in the rainy season, and it is more serious in the south of Yangtze River than in the north.To prevent and cure, the diseased leaves should be removed in time. Foliar spraying can done with 800 times of zinc dioxane or tolbutazin. Insect pests, the main pests of lotus are budworm and golden tortoise, etc.
They mainly suck the sap of lotus leaves, petioles and young flower buds. It reproduces very fast. Once it is found, it should prevented in time by spraying the leaf surface and petiole with 1000 times of 40% of lego emulsion.
Occurring from June to August, the golden tortoise mainly harms the leaves and flowers of lotus. It can prevented and treated by using the light-trending characteristic of the adult golden tortoise to trap and kill. In addition, water plants should pulled out and water cotton should be removed in time (sprayed with 0.3-0.5% copper sulfate solution).
E. Overwintering management
South of the Yangtze River can be natural overwintering, north of the Yangtze River should controlled depending on the thickness of the thickest ice layer in winter. The water depth should be more than 10 cm beyond the thickest ice layer of the calendar year. For potted lotus, put it into the cold shed before the winter in Beijing and Tianjin. The temperature of the cold shed should controlled between 0-5℃. Cut the flower stalks and petioles and ensure that there is water in the pots for a long time before putting them in the greenhouse, and pay attention to ventilation at noon on sunny days.
F. Fertilization method of lotus
Lotus in pots must not fertilized with base fertilizer, and organic fertilizer is generally not applied. When applying fertilizer, you should “look at seven things”. That is, look at the leaves, the sky, the ground, the growth, the variety, the fertilizer and the season. Also follow the principle of fertilization of less in the early stage, diligent in the middle, and steady in the late stage.
1. Look at the leaves
Leaf color is like the color of a person’s face, if the leaf color is yellow, leaf quality is thin. It is the performance of fertilizer deficiency, should fertilized early. If the soil is alkaline and lack of fertilizer, you can mix the fertilizer and ferrous sulfate together. Pay attention to identify the characteristics of yellowish leaves and yellowish leaves of some varieties caused by rotten roots due to too fat soil.
2. Look at the day
Apply in the afternoon on a sunny day, not in the morning, not before a rainstorm. When the temperature is low, apply less, when the temperature is high, apply more. It should applied early after being affected by typhoons and rainstorms.
3. Look at the land
Choose fertilizers with different contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium according to the local soil quality. If the local soil is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus and potassium. Then you should apply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer. If the local soil is alkaline, mixed with the right amount of calcium superphosphate in the application of three-tier compound fertilizer is more effective. This is because calcium superphosphate contains free acid ions (if you have automated irrigation equipment, you can use more efficient and faster water-soluble fertilizer).0
4. Look at the growth
The same variety of strong growth of less application, due to lack of fertilizer weak growth of appropriate early application, no nitrogen fertilizer for the leaf flourishing without buds.
5. Look at the variety
There are many varieties of potted lotus, and different varieties vary in size, early and late development, and fertility tolerance. The general principle is to apply more to large varieties and less to small ones. The early development of the early application, fertilizer tolerance is strong more application.
6. Look at the fertilizer
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the three elements needed for plant growth and development. It is necessary to know the role of these three elements. If there is a lack of nitrogen fertilizer, the plant will be yellow and thin, and its development will be slow. Too much nitrogen fertilizer will cause the potted lotus to have lush stems and leaves and relatively few flowers. Phosphorus fertilizer has the function of promoting root development and flower bud differentiation. Potassium fertilizer has the function of making the stem sturdy and enhancing the resistance to disease, cold and collapse. In addition, boron in trace elements has the function of promoting the development of flower buds and improving the fruit set rate.
7. Depends on the season
Potted lotus needs the most fertilizer in summer. Therefore, in terms of fertilization amount, the general rule is. Less in spring, more in summer, less in autumn and no in winter.