Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc
Copper is an alloy of copper and nickel
Bronze is an alloy of copper and elements other than zinc and nickel, mainly tin bronze, aluminum bronze, etc.
Copper is copper with high copper content, and the total content of other impurities is below 1%.
Red copper is pure copper, also known as red copper. Pure copper has a density of 8.96 and a melting point of 1083 ° C. It has good electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent plasticity, and is easy to be processed by hot and cold pressure. It is widely used in the manufacture of electrical conductivity products such as electric wires, cables, brushes, and electric copper for electric sparks.
It is named after a fuchsia. It is not necessarily pure copper, and sometimes a small amount of deoxidizing elements or other elements are added to improve the material and performance, so it is also classified as a copper alloy. Chinese copper processing materials can be divided into: ordinary copper (T1, T2, T3, T4), oxygen-free copper (TU1, TU2 and high-purity, vacuum oxygen-free copper), deoxidized copper (TUP, TUMn), and small amounts of alloy Element special copper (arsenic copper, tellurium copper, silver copper) four categories.
Copper is second only to silver in electrical and thermal conductivity, and is widely used to make conductive and thermally conductive equipment. Copper has good corrosion resistance in the atmosphere, sea water and certain non-oxidizing acids (hydrochloric acid, dilute sulfuric acid), alkalis, salt solutions and various organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid), and is used in the chemical industry. In addition, copper has good weldability and can be processed into various semi-finished products and finished products through cold and thermoplastic processing. In the 1970s, the output of copper exceeded the total output of other types of copper alloys.
The trace impurities in copper machining have a serious impact on the electrical and thermal conductivity of copper. Among them, titanium, phosphorus, iron, silicon, etc. significantly reduce the conductivity, while cadmium, zinc, etc. have little effect. Oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, etc. have a small solid solubility in copper, can form brittle compounds with copper, have little effect on conductivity, but can reduce processing plasticity. When ordinary copper is heated in a reducing atmosphere containing hydrogen or carbon monoxide, hydrogen or carbon monoxide easily interacts with cuprous oxide (Cu2O) at the grain boundary to generate high-pressure water vapor or carbon dioxide gas, which can cause copper to crack. This phenomenon is often referred to as the “hydrogen disease” of copper. Oxygen is detrimental to the weldability of copper. Bismuth or lead forms low-melting eutectics with copper, causing copper to become hot-embrittled; when brittle bismuth is distributed in a thin film shape at grain boundaries, it also causes copper to become cold-brittle. Phosphorus can significantly reduce the conductivity of copper, but it can improve the fluidity of copper liquid and improve weldability. Appropriate amounts of lead, tellurium and sulfur can improve machinability.
Brass: A copper alloy with zinc as the main additive element, with a beautiful yellow color, collectively referred to as brass. The copper-zinc binary alloy is called ordinary brass or simple brass. Ternary or higher brass is called special brass or complex brass. Brass alloys containing less than 36% zinc are composed of solid solution and have good cold workability. For example, brass containing 30% zinc is commonly used to make bullet shells, commonly known as bullet shell brass or seven or three brass. Brass alloys containing between 36% and 42% zinc are composed of solid solution, and the most commonly used is six or four brass with 40% zinc. In order to improve the performance of ordinary brass, other elements are often added, such as aluminum, nickel, manganese, tin, silicon, lead and so on. Aluminum can improve the strength, hardness and corrosion resistance of brass, but reduce the plasticity. It is suitable for use as a condensing pipe and other corrosion-resistant parts. Tin can improve the strength of brass and corrosion resistance to seawater, so it is called naval brass, which is used as ship thermal equipment and propeller. Lead improves the cutting performance of brass; this free-cutting brass is often used as a watch part. Brass castings are commonly used to make valves and pipe fittings.
Bronze: Originally refers to copper-tin alloys, and copper alloys other than brass and white copper are called bronzes, and they are often given the name of the first major added element before the bronze name. Tin bronze has good casting performance, anti-friction performance and good mechanical properties, and is suitable for manufacturing bearings, worm gears, gears, etc. Lead bronze is a widely used bearing material for modern engines and grinders. Aluminum bronze has high strength, good wear resistance and corrosion resistance, and is used for casting gears, bushings and marine propellers with high load. Beryllium bronze and phosphor bronze have high elastic limit and good electrical conductivity, and are suitable for manufacturing precision springs and electrical contact components. Beryllium bronze is also used to make non-sparking tools used in coal mines, oil depots, and so on.
Copper: Copper alloy with nickel as the main additive element. The copper-nickel binary alloy is called ordinary white copper; the white copper alloy with manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum and other elements is called complex white copper. Industrial copper is divided into two categories: structural copper and electrical copper. Structural white copper is characterized by good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, and beautiful color. This white copper is widely used in the manufacture of precision machinery, chemical machinery and marine components. Electrical copper copper generally has good thermoelectric properties.
Manganese copper, constantan and copper are manganese white copper with different manganese content. They are materials used in the manufacture of precision electrical instruments, rheostats, precision resistors, strain gauges, thermocouples and the like.
1) Ordinary brass: It is an alloy composed of copper and zinc. When the zinc content is less than 39%, zinc can dissolve in copper to form a single phase a, which is called single-phase brass. It has good plasticity and is suitable for cold and hot press processing. When the zinc content is greater than 39%, there are a single phase and a copper solid zinc-based b solid solution, which is called dual-phase brass, and b makes the plasticity small and the tensile strength increased, which is only suitable for hot pressure processing. If the mass fraction of zinc continues to increase, the tensile strength will decrease, and it will have no use value. The code is represented by “H + number”, H is brass, and the number is the mass fraction of copper. For example, H68 indicates that the copper content is 68%, and the zinc content is 32%. Brass, and cast brass is “Z” before the code name. For example, ZH62, such as Zcuzn38, the zinc content is 38%, and the balance is copper. Cast brass. H90 and H80 are single-phase, golden yellow, so they are collectively called golden, called plating, decorations, medals, etc. H68 and H59 are dual-phase brasses, which are widely used in electrical components, such as bolts, nuts, washers, springs, etc. In general, single-phase brass for cold deformation processing and dual-phase brass for hot deformation processing.
2) Special brass: A multi-component alloy composed of other alloy elements added to ordinary brass is called brass. The elements often added are lead, tin, aluminum, etc., which can be called lead brass, tin brass, and machining brass accordingly. The purpose of adding alloy elements. It is mainly to improve the tensile strength and improve the processability. Code: “H + main plus element symbol (except zinc) + copper mass fraction + main plus element mass fraction + other element mass fraction” means. For example, HPb59-1 indicates that the mass fraction of copper is 59%, the mass fraction of lead with main plus element is 1%, and the balance is zinc-lead brass.
2. Bronze: In addition to brass and white copper, the rest of the copper alloys are collectively referred to as bronze. Bronze can be divided into tin bronze and special bronze (ie, Wuxi bronze). Code: The expression method is composed of “Q + main plus element symbol and mass fraction + mass fraction of other elements”. For casting products, add “Z” before the code, such as: Qal7 means aluminum containing 7%, and the remaining aluminum bronze ZQsn10-1 means 10% tin, and the other alloy elements are 1%, the balance is Foundry tin bronze for copper.
1) Tin bronze: a copper-tin alloy consisting mainly of tin plus elements, also known as tin bronze.
When the tin content is less than 5 to 6%, tin dissolves in copper to form a solid solution, and the plasticity increases. When the tin content is more than 5 to 6%, due to the presence of Cu31sb8-based solid solution, the tensile strength decreases. The tin bronze content of tin bronze is mostly between 3 and 14%. When the tin content is less than 5%, it is suitable for cold deformation processing. When the tin content is 5 to 7%, it is suitable for hot deformation processing. When the tin content is greater than 10%, it is suitable for casting. Because a and the electrode potential are similar, and the tin in the composition is nitrided to form a dense tin dioxide film, the resistance to atmospheric and seawater is increased, but the acid resistance is poor. Because tin bronze has a wide crystallization temperature range, poor fluidity, it is not easy to form concentrated shrinkage, but it is easy to form dendrite segregation and dispersed shrinkage, and the casting shrinkage is small. Complex shape. The condition of large wall thickness is not suitable for casting which requires high density and good sealing. Tin bronze has good antifriction, antimagnetic and low temperature toughness. Tin bronze can be divided into two categories: pressure processed tin bronze and cast tin bronze according to production methods.
A. Press-processed tin bronze: Tin content is generally less than 8%. It should be machinined by hot and cold pressure into plates, strips, rods, tubes and other profiles. After work hardening, its tensile strength and hardness increase, while plasticity decreases. After re-annealing, the plasticity can be improved at a higher tensile strength, and especially a high elastic limit can be obtained. Applicable instruments require corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant parts, elastic parts, anti-magnetic parts, and sliding bearings, shaft sleeves in the machine, etc. Commonly used are Qsn4-3 Qsn6.5 ~ 0.1.
B. Casting tin bronze: It is supplied by ingots and used by the foundry to cast castings. It is suitable for castings with complex shapes but low density requirements, such as sliding bearings and gears. Commonly used are ZQsn10-1 and ZQsn6-6-3.
2) Special bronze: Add other elements to replace tin or Wuxi bronze. Most special bronzes have higher mechanical properties, wear resistance and corrosion resistance than tin bronze. Aluminum bronze (QAL7 QAL5) lead bronze is commonly used. (ZQPB30) and so on. Copper-based alloys with nickel as the main additive element are silver-white and are called white copper. Nickel content is usually 10%, 15%, 20%, the higher the content, the whiter the color. The copper-nickel binary alloy is called ordinary white copper, and the copper-nickel alloy with elements such as manganese, iron, zinc, and aluminum is called complex white copper. Pure copper plus nickel can significantly improve strength, corrosion resistance, resistance, and thermoelectricity. Industrial copper is divided into structural copper and electrical copper according to different performance characteristics and uses, which meet various corrosion resistance and special electrical and thermal properties.
Typical grade, chemical composition (%) (mass fraction): Sn (tin), Al (aluminum), Fe (iron), Pb (lead), Sb (antimony), Bi (bismuth), Si (silicon), P ( Phosphorus), Cu, and impurities.
Types and distribution of copper ore,
According to its geological — industrial types, it can be divided into:
(1) porphyry type
(2) sand shale type
(3) copper-nickel sulfide type
(4) pyrite type
(5) copper-uranium-gold type
(6) natural copper type
(8) carbonate type
(9) skarn type
Porphyry-type: Porphyry-type copper deposits are copper deposits with large reserves and low-availability and large-scale mechanized open-pit copper deposits. The ore reserves often reach hundreds of millions of tons. The grade of copper is often less than 1%. According to statistics from 103 porphyry deposits in the world The average amount of ore in a single deposit can reach 550 million tons and the copper grade is 0.6%. It is one of the important types of copper ore industry in the world.
Distribution: The known porphyry copper deposits are mostly distributed in:
(1) the Pacific Rim, including the south. Narrow porphyry copper belts on the margins of the North American continent, such as Lonex, Canada, Falicopa, Bingham, U.S.A., Molenzie, Erie, Santa Rita, Canane, Mexico A, La Caridadela, Cerro Colorado in Panama, Mickeyi Peru in Peru, Cerro Foldi. Cuahoné El Abra in Chile, Chuquicamata, La Escondida , El Salvador and El Ternte, etc.,
(2) Tethys porphyry copper ore belt, including Rexke, Hungary, Medanpec, Yugoslavia, Salcheshmei and Makistan, Iran Chage area ore deposits.
(3) Central Asia-Mongolia, important mineral deposits are Carmackel in eastern Uzbekistan, Koonlad north of Lake Balkhash in Kazakhstan, and Ergantu in north-central Mongolia to Chagan in southern Obo Suburga and the Alenor deposit in the east.
Sand-shale type: Sand-shale type copper deposits refer to layered copper deposits in sedimentary rocks of different ages.The deposits are produced in a set of sedimentary rocks or sedimentary metamorphic rocks.It is one of the main industrial types of copper mines in the world, accounting for the world. The copper reserves are about 30%. The deposit is characterized by its large scale, high grade, and abundant associated components, so its economic value is huge.
Distribution: This type of deposit is widely distributed in the world. In addition to the above copper belts, there are the former Soviet Union Udokkan, Jezkazgan Copper Mine, Whitepan, USA, Western Montana, USA, and southwestern Canada. The Belt copper belt, and the Kodo copper belt in Bolivia. The huge Aynak copper mine discovered in Afghanistan in recent years and the Salobo copper mine found in Brazil belong to this type.
Pyrite-type copper ore: Pyrite-type copper ore refers to a ore deposit containing a large amount of pyrite and a certain amount of copper, lead, and zinc, which is connected to the submarine volcanism. It is often referred to in the West as “block sulfide” “Mineral deposits” At least 420 deposits of this type have been found in the world. Canada, the United States, the former Soviet Union, Spain, Portugal, Cyprus, South Africa and Japan are all important sources of such deposits.
Massive sulfide deposits: This modern deposit was first discovered on the eastern Pacific ridge near 21 degrees north latitude in 1978. Although the copper and zinc grades were high (6% copper, 29% zinc), a long 970 meters, 200 meters wide, 35 meters high, with a polymetallic massive sulfide deposit of 25 million tons of ore, for the first time, it has met the requirements of industrial deposits, and its ore contains copper up to 11% and zinc 0.8% It also contains a small amount of silver (PPM), molybdenum (0.03%) and tin (0.03%).
Distribution: In 1982, the United States continued to conduct investigations in the 13 degrees north latitude and found several mineral deposits. Recently, it has 1% of the center of the Exproule in the waters off Vancouver Island, Canada, but in the former Soviet Union this type is first-class Importantly, it accounts for 30.6% of its total copper reserves. Important deposits of this type are: Sudbury, Thompson, Linlec, Canada. Duluth Complex of the United States, Bechenga, former Soviet Union, Novo Rilsk, Tarnach, “October”, the Kambald complex in Australia, the Godalach Belt in Finland, and of course the oversized Baijiazui in Jinchuan, China.
Other types: In addition to the above types, there are vein types, natural copper types, carbonate type skarn types, etc., which together account for 3.6% of the world’s total copper reserves, but for different countries, these types may It is important.For example, the skarn type is a very important industrial type for China, accounting for 28% of China’s total copper reserves. Therefore, all countries should look for high-quality mineral deposits with the most economic value according to their specific geological environment. That is, the grade is high, the scale is large, the shape is appropriate, and the ore belt boundary is obvious. The ore is easy to handle and contains valuable by-product deposits to ensure high profits and long-term production. The most important of these factors is to have a high grade. The most likely source of this high grade copper deposit will be volcanic origin. Pyrite-type copper deposits, layered deposits, and some skarn deposits.
Applications in the electrical industry
Power transmission: A large amount of highly conductive copper is consumed in power transmission, which is mainly used for power applications. Cables, busbars, transformers, switches, plug-in components and connectors. In the process of wire and cable power transmission, electrical energy is wasted because of resistance heating. From the perspective of energy saving and economy, the “best cable cross-section” standard is currently being promoted in the world. In the past, the standard was set from the perspective of reducing the investment for one installation. In order to minimize the cable cross-section, the minimum allowable cable size was determined at the rated current required by the design so as not to cause dangerous overheating. Cables laid according to this standard, although the installation cost is low; but in long-term use, the resistance energy consumption is relatively large. The “best cable cross-section” standard takes into account the two factors of one-time installation cost and power consumption, and appropriately enlarges the cable size to achieve the goals of energy saving and best comprehensive economic benefits. According to the new standard, the cross section of the cable is often more than doubled compared to the old standard, and energy savings of about 50% can be achieved. In the past, due to the shortage of steel in our country, considering that the proportion of aluminum is only 30% of copper, we have adopted measures to replace copper with aluminum in overhead high-voltage transmission lines that want to reduce weight. From the perspective of environmental protection, air transmission lines will be converted into underground cables. In this case, compared with copper, aluminum has the disadvantages of poor electrical conductivity and large cable size, which are dwarfed.
Motor manufacturing: In motor manufacturing, copper alloys with high conductivity and high strength are widely used. The main copper parts are the stator, rotor and shaft head. In large motors, the windings need to be cooled with water or hydrogen, which is called dual-water internal cooling or hydrogen-cooled motors, which requires large lengths of hollow wires. Electric motors are large households that use electrical energy, accounting for about 60% of the total electrical energy supply. The cumulative electricity cost of a motor is very high. Generally, the cost of the motor is reached within the first 500 hours of operation, which is equivalent to 4-16 times the cost in one year, and it can reach 200 times the cost during the entire working life. A small increase in the efficiency of the motor can not only save energy, but also obtain significant economic benefits. The development and application of high-efficiency motors is a hot topic in the world. Due to the internal energy consumption of the motor, it mainly comes from the resistance loss of the windings; therefore, increasing the copper wire cross section is a key measure for the development of efficient motors. Compared with traditional motors, some high-efficiency motors that have been pioneered in recent years have increased the use of copper windings by 25 to 100%. Currently, the US Department of Energy is funding a development project to produce motor rotors using copper-cast technology.
Communication cables: Since the 1980s, due to the advantages of large current carrying capacity of optical fiber cables, copper cables have been continuously replaced on communication trunk lines, and they have been rapidly promoted and applied. However, the conversion of electrical energy into light energy, and the lines that feed users, still requires the use of large amounts of copper. With the development of the communications industry, people are increasingly dependent on communications, and the demand for fiber optic cables and copper wires will continue to increase.
Residential electrical circuits: In recent years, with the improvement of people’s living standards in China, household appliances have rapidly spread, and residential electricity loads have grown rapidly. As shown in Figure 6.6, the residential electricity consumption in 1987 was 26.96 billion kWh (1 kW = 1 kW · hour), and it rose to 113.1 billion kWh in 1996, an increase of 3.2 times. Nevertheless, there is still a large gap compared with developed countries. For example, in 1995 the per capita electricity consumption in the United States was 14.6 times that of China, and Japan was 8.6 times that of China. The electricity consumption of Chinese residents will continue to develop greatly in the future. Expected to increase from 1996 to 2005 l. 4 times.
Applications in the mechanical and metallurgical industries: Copper parts can be found in almost all machines. In addition to the large amount of steel used in motors, circuits, hydraulic systems, pneumatic systems and control systems, there are a wide variety of transmission and fixing parts made of brass and bronze, such as gears, worm wheels, worms, couplings, fasteners, Screws, screws, nuts, etc. abound. Nearly all parts that make relative mechanical movements must use bearings or bushings made of reduced-wear copper alloys, especially large-scale 10,000-ton extruder, cylinder liners and slides of forging presses are almost made of bronze. , Casting weight can reach several tons. Many elastic components use silicon bronze and tin bronze as materials. Welding tools, die-casting molds, etc. are inseparable from copper alloys, and so on.
Metallurgical equipment: The metallurgical industry is a large consumer of electrical energy, known as the “electric tiger”. In the construction of metallurgical plants, there must usually be a huge transmission and distribution system and electrical operation equipment that rely on copper to work. In addition, in pyrometallurgy, continuous casting technology has occupied a dominant position. Among them, a key component, a crystallizer, mostly uses copper alloys such as chrome copper, silver copper and other high strength and high thermal conductivity. Water-cooled crucibles for vacuum arc furnaces and electroslag furnaces in electric metallurgy are made of steel pipes. The induction coils of various induction heating are wound with copper tubes or special-shaped copper tubes, which are cooled by water in the middle.
Alloy additives: Copper is an important additive element in alloys such as steel and aluminum. A small amount of copper (0.2-0.5%) is added to low-alloy structural steel, which can improve the strength of the steel and the resistance to atmospheric and marine corrosion. Adding copper to corrosion-resistant cast iron and stainless steel can further improve their corrosion resistance. The high-nickel alloy containing about 30% copper is a well-known high-strength corrosion-resistant “Monel alloy” and is widely used in the nuclear industry. Copper is contained in many high-strength aluminum alloys. Through quenching and aging heat treatment, dispersedly dispersed fine particles are precipitated in the alloy, and its strength is significantly improved, which is called aging hardened aluminum alloy. Among them, Dura Aluminum or Hard Aluminum is famous. It is an aluminum alloy containing copper, manganese, and magnesium. It is an important structural material for manufacturing aircraft and rockets.
Applications in architecture
Pipeline system: Because steel water pipe has many advantages such as beautiful and durable, convenient installation, safety and fire protection, health care, etc., it has a significantly superior price-performance ratio compared with galvanized steel pipes and plastic pipes. In residential and public buildings, water supply, heating, air supply and fire sprinkler systems are increasingly favored by people and have become the materials of choice. In developed countries, copper water supply systems have accounted for a large proportion. The Manhattan building, known as the sixth tallest building in the world in New York, USA, is only for water systems, and uses 60,000 feet (1 km) of copper pipes. In Europe, steel pipes for drinking water are heavily consumed. The consumption of drinking water pipes in the UK averages 1.6 kg per person per year, compared with 0.2 kg in Japan. Because galvanized steel is susceptible to corrosion, many countries have banned it. Hong Kong’s use was banned as early as January 1996, and Shanghai became effective in May 1998. It is imperative for China to promote the use of copper pipeline systems in housing construction.
House renovation: It has been a tradition in Europe to use steel plates for roofs and eaves. It is even used as wall decoration in the Nordic countries. Copper has good resistance to atmospheric corrosion, is durable, and can be recycled. It has good processability and can be easily made into complex shapes, and it also has beautiful colors; therefore, it is very suitable for house decoration. It has a long history of application on the roofs of ancient buildings such as churches, and it still emits attractive luster to this day; and it is increasingly used in the construction of modern large buildings and even apartments and houses. For example: In London, the “Commonwealth Council” building representing modern British architectural art has a complex roof shape, constructed of steel plates, and weighs about 25 tons; the Crystal Palace Sports Center, opened in 1966, has a wavy roof made of 60 tons of steel and many more. According to statistics, copper plates used as roofs consume an average of 0.8 kg per person per year in Germany and 0.2 kg in the United States. In addition, the interior decoration of the house, such as: door handles, locks, hundreds of pages, hurdles, lamps, wall decorations and kitchen appliances, etc. The use of steel products is not only durable, sterilized and sanitary, but also decorated with elegance, which is popular favorite.
Natural attributes of copper: Copper is one of the earliest ancient metals discovered by mankind, and mankind began to use copper more than three thousand years ago. Copper in nature is divided into natural copper, copper oxide ore and copper sulfide ore. The reserves of natural copper and copper oxide are small. At present, more than 80% of the copper in the world is refined from copper sulfide ores. Copper metal, element symbol Cu, atomic weight 63.54, specific gravity 8.92, melting point 1083Co. Pure copper is light rose or light red. Copper has many valuable physical and chemical characteristics, such as its high thermal and electrical conductivity, strong chemical stability, large tensile strength, easy welding, corrosion resistance, plasticity, and ductility. Pure copper can be drawn into very thin copper wires to make very thin copper foil. It can form alloys with zinc, tin, lead, manganese, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron and other metals. The alloys formed are mainly divided into three categories: brass is copper-zinc alloy, bronze is copper-tin alloy, and white copper is copper-cobalt-nickel alloy. The development of copper metallurgy technology has gone through a long process, but so far copper smelting is still dominated by fire smelting. Its output accounts for about 85% of the world’s total copper output. Modern wet smelting technology is gradually being promoted. Up to 20% of the total output, the introduction of wet smelting has greatly reduced the cost of copper smelting.
1. International copper consumption still maintains a certain growth rate, but the growth rate has dropped: since the 1990s. Two types of countries play a major role in the growth of international copper consumption. One is the developed countries in North America and Europe, such as the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan and other countries. The other is the developing and less developed countries and regions in Asia and South America, such as China, India, South Korea, Taiwan Province of China, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Chile and other countries. ; Shaw fee ratio roughly equals each of the two categories of countries. Looking at the future development trend, the copper consumption of the first type of countries has basically stabilized, and the growth rate of copper consumption is relatively low, generally between 1% and 3%. The economic development potential of the second group of countries is large, and copper consumption may maintain a rapid growth rate. In particular, China, India, and Russia have experienced rapid growth in copper consumption over the past two years, with fees increasing by more than 6% to 10%. It is expected that the growth of world copper consumption may slow down in the near future, but the long-term growth of the international market will not change.
2. The development of international copper mines has been increased, but the supply is still tight in the short term: against the background of the rapid rise in international copper prices and the continued tight supply of mineral resources, the prices of copper concentrates have been rising all the way, while the profits of mining enterprises have risen sharply, It has also stimulated mining enterprises to increase resources development efforts and promote rapid increase in production capacity. It is expected that the growth rate of global mineral output in 2007 will reach more than 5.5%, and the amount of metal will be about 16.5 million tons. Among them, the copper-containing copper output of China’s copper concentrates reached 830,000 tons (news), an increase of 9.97% year-on-year, accounting for about 5% of the global total output. According to CRU related data statistics, in recent years, the development projects of c145 copper resources have been concentrated in South America, the main countries are Chile and Peru. The copper mining resources development projects in the Asian region have also become a rapid growth trend. The main countries are China, India, Outer Mongolia and other countries. It is expected that most of the new global production capacity will be put into production next year. The growth rate of copper concentrate output in 2008 will be higher than this year. At about 8%, the amount of copper metal produced is about 17.82 million tons. However, we believe that although the supply is still growing rapidly, it has not been fast enough to reverse the shortage of copper concentrate supply in the short term. Any major emergencies affecting copper production will cause a shortage of concentrate supply. Therefore, it is expected that the global copper concentrate supply and demand situation in the past two years is still not optimistic. Domestically, although domestic mining enterprises have increased their investment efforts, they are still far from meeting domestic demand. It is expected that China’s copper concentrate imports in 2008 will continue to increase to a certain extent.
3. The international copper price has fluctuated greatly recently: In the past few years, copper has exhibited two attributes, one as a commodity attribute and one as a financial attribute. As a commodity, copper has been in tight supply for the past few years, and the price of copper has naturally kept rising. The high returns brought by the rise in copper prices will undoubtedly attract more funds. These funds consider copper as part of the investment portfolio. Investing in copper can improve returns and avoid the risk of inflation, so copper has been given financial support. Attributes. After entering 2003, the price of copper has begun to enter an upward channel. The average annual price has risen from 1579 US dollars in 2003 to 6,665 US dollars per ton in 2006, an increase of 322, of which on May 11, 2006, the copper price reached 8800 US dollars in an instant. The historical high level of copper per ton has exaggerated the financial attributes of copper to the extreme. At the same time, it has bid farewell to $ 3,000 per ton and entered the era of high copper prices. Since then, under the influence of strikes, near-winds, funds, inventory, US subprime debt turmoil, Chinese demand, etc., the price of copper has begun to fluctuate widely, with fluctuations ranging from $ 5,500 to $ 8,500. Judging from the current situation, although the economic situation of the United States and some developed countries in the recent period is not optimistic and has a certain restraining effect on copper prices, low inventory and strong expectations for Chinese copper demand are still the main factors supporting copper prices. Therefore, it is expected that the price of copper will still be relatively high and fluctuate widely in the near future.
4. The pace of international large-scale copper companies’ joint reorganization is accelerating. The monopoly of mineral resources is increasing: the wave of economic globalization has spread to various fields, and the copper industry is no exception. In order to adapt to market competition, in recent years, large-scale foreign c145 tellurium copper companies have jointly reorganized. The pace of development has accelerated, and industrial concentration has also increased. Mergers, mergers and acquisitions, and broadening of the scope of business have become a trend. So we continue to see acquisitions, mergers, and alliances to form larger multinational companies (most of them Is a mining, processing, and processing joint enterprise) to achieve large-scale operations and expand market share.