China Precision Machining Parts

China Precision Machining Parts

During the machining of precision parts, the process of cutting metal is performed under high cutting temperature and severe friction conditions. Therefore, in the process of precision parts machining, the length of the tool life and the level of cutting efficiency Depending on the tool material, the tool material determines the fundamental factor of the cutting performance of the tool, which has a great impact on the efficiency, the quality of the machining, the cost of the machining, and the durability of the tool. High hardness: The hardness of the tool material needs to be higher than the hardness of the workpiece material to cut the metal, and the hardness should be above 60HRC at normal temperature. High abrasion resistance: Abrasion resistance is expressed as the ability of the tool material to resist wear. Generally, the higher the hardness, the better the abrasion resistance of the material. Sufficient strength and toughness: The tool material needs to have sufficient strength and toughness to ensure that the tool can withstand sufficient total cutting force, impact and vibration during the normal cutting process of precision machining to prevent chipping or brittle fracture of the tool. High heat resistance: Heat resistance, also known as hard heat, refers to the ability of the tool material to maintain cutting performance at high temperatures. It is the main indicator of tool material performance. Among them, machining nitronic 60 is a good choice

In the precision parts cnc machining industry, there are various surface treatment processes on production drawings. Aluminum alloy parts such as: oxidized natural color, oxidized black, sandblasting, hard white, blue and other colors; steel parts are chrome-plated and zinc-plated. , Nickel plating and blackening treatment; among them, blackening is a very common type of steel treatment. The principle is to make an oxide film on the metal surface to isolate the air and achieve the purpose of anti-rusting of the processed parts. When precision parts are processed, many mechanical equipment parts are not required to be blackened. The blackening of steel can also be called blue, and the effect achieved by the treatment method is the same. It is a chemical surface treatment.Its main function is to form a dense oxide film on the surface of the workpiece, prevent the workpiece from corroding and rusting, improve the wear resistance of the workpiece, and will not have any impact on the internal organization of the processed product. Black treatment is not heat treatment, and it is fundamentally different from hardening treatment. There are two commonly used methods of blackening treatment: traditional alkaline heating blackening and late-time normal temperature blackening. But the effect of normal temperature blackening on low carbon steel is not very good. Basic blackening is subdivided, and there is a difference between one blackening and two blackenings. The main components of blackening liquor are sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite.

The counting method of the precision parts machining center is related to the specific machine system. Some systems are more convenient to use, and the program only needs to be executed once, then it can be automatically remembered, and then the code that the users need can be modified in the settings , So these piece counting methods will greatly improve work efficiency. Compared with other mold machines, the machining center is a relatively easy-to-use product. It is not only highly automatic, but also has better work efficiency. Especially in the piece counting method, it seems cumbersome in many ways. Process, and in such a machine, it can be done easily, so the machine is also very popular. Every machine that can play a key role in industrial production activities is actually supported by key cnc machined parts. The important thing in precision parts machining centers is its programming software, and the appearance of CNC machining center programming software is very Good guarantees that the machine is good during operation. The counting method of the precision parts machining center is related to the specific machine system. Some systems are more convenient to use, and the program only needs to be executed once, then it can be automatically remembered, and then the code that the users need can be modified in the settings. After these piece counting methods are used, they will greatly improve work efficiency.
China Precision Machining Parts

Causes of Under die-casting

Causes of Under-casting

In the production process of die castings, many quality problems are encountered, that is, as a common quality defect of die castings, which is one of the defects, which causes the under casting of die castings. The basis of analysis is as follows:
During the forming process of die castings, some parts are incompletely filled, which is called under casting. When the undercast part is serious, it can be regarded as the shape of the die casting does not meet the requirements of the drawing. Under-casting is generally not allowed.
The causes of under casting are:
1) Poor filling conditions and irregularly condensed metal in undercast parts;
When the pressure is insufficient or insufficient, the metal at the leading edge of the activity solidifies prematurely, resulting in corners, deep concavities, thin walls (even thinner than the average wall thickness), cylindrical hole walls and other parts.
Mold temperature is too low;
Alloy pouring temperature is too low;
The position of the inner gate is not good, forming a large resistance to movement.
2) Gas obstruction, surface lubrication of undercast parts, but irregular shape
Difficult to set up the overflow system, gas accumulation;
When the molten metal moves, the turbulence is intense and the gas is engulfed.
3) Residue in plastic mold cavity
Inappropriate amount of paint or spray method can cause local paint deposition.
The inserting gap of the molded part is too large, or the sliding cooperation gap is too large. It penetrates into the metal during filling. After the casting is taken out, it cannot be taken out completely and it appears as a sheet sandwiched between the gaps. When the kind of sheet metal (whose thickness is the size of the gap) is more convex to the surrounding profile, the height of the protrusion is changed to the thickness of the casting suitable for the mold, so Future castings will have penetrating (for wall thickness) grooves there. This penetrating groove becomes a special form of undercast. This under-casting phenomenon occurs in the case of a deep cavity composed of mosaics.
Insufficient pouring (including excess material section is too thin).
On the vertical die casting machine, the lower punch is not enough to open the nozzle orifice during injection, which causes a series of poor filling conditions.
Causes of Under die-casting

Common Copper Characteristics And Applications

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc
Copper is an alloy of copper and nickel
Bronze is an alloy of copper and elements other than zinc and nickel, mainly tin bronze, aluminum bronze, etc.
Copper is copper with high copper content, and the total content of other impurities is below 1%.
Red copper is pure copper, also known as red copper. Pure copper has a density of 8.96 and a melting point of 1083 ° C. It has good electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent plasticity, and is easy to be processed by hot and cold pressure. It is widely used in the manufacture of electrical conductivity products such as electric wires, cables, brushes, and electric copper for electric sparks.
It is named after a fuchsia. It is not necessarily pure copper, and sometimes a small amount of deoxidizing elements or other elements are added to improve the material and performance, so it is also classified as a copper alloy. Chinese copper processing materials can be divided into: ordinary copper (T1, T2, T3, T4), oxygen-free copper (TU1, TU2 and high-purity, vacuum oxygen-free copper), deoxidized copper (TUP, TUMn), and small amounts of alloy Element special copper (arsenic copper, tellurium copper, silver copper) four categories.
Copper is second only to silver in electrical and thermal conductivity, and is widely used to make conductive and thermally conductive equipment. Copper has good corrosion resistance in the atmosphere, sea water and certain non-oxidizing acids (hydrochloric acid, dilute sulfuric acid), alkalis, salt solutions and various organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid), and is used in the chemical industry. In addition, copper has good weldability and can be processed into various semi-finished products and finished products through cold and thermoplastic processing. In the 1970s, the output of copper exceeded the total output of other types of copper alloys.
The trace impurities in copper machining have a serious impact on the electrical and thermal conductivity of copper. Among them, titanium, phosphorus, iron, silicon, etc. significantly reduce the conductivity, while cadmium, zinc, etc. have little effect. Oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, etc. have a small solid solubility in copper, can form brittle compounds with copper, have little effect on conductivity, but can reduce processing plasticity. When ordinary copper is heated in a reducing atmosphere containing hydrogen or carbon monoxide, hydrogen or carbon monoxide easily interacts with cuprous oxide (Cu2O) at the grain boundary to generate high-pressure water vapor or carbon dioxide gas, which can cause copper to crack. This phenomenon is often referred to as the “hydrogen disease” of copper. Oxygen is detrimental to the weldability of copper. Bismuth or lead forms low-melting eutectics with copper, causing copper to become hot-embrittled; when brittle bismuth is distributed in a thin film shape at grain boundaries, it also causes copper to become cold-brittle. Phosphorus can significantly reduce the conductivity of copper, but it can improve the fluidity of copper liquid and improve weldability. Appropriate amounts of lead, tellurium and sulfur can improve machinability.
Brass: A copper alloy with zinc as the main additive element, with a beautiful yellow color, collectively referred to as brass. The copper-zinc binary alloy is called ordinary brass or simple brass. Ternary or higher brass is called special brass or complex brass. Brass alloys containing less than 36% zinc are composed of solid solution and have good cold workability. For example, brass containing 30% zinc is commonly used to make bullet shells, commonly known as bullet shell brass or seven or three brass. Brass alloys containing between 36% and 42% zinc are composed of solid solution, and the most commonly used is six or four brass with 40% zinc. In order to improve the performance of ordinary brass, other elements are often added, such as aluminum, nickel, manganese, tin, silicon, lead and so on. Aluminum can improve the strength, hardness and corrosion resistance of brass, but reduce the plasticity. It is suitable for use as a condensing pipe and other corrosion-resistant parts. Tin can improve the strength of brass and corrosion resistance to seawater, so it is called naval brass, which is used as ship thermal equipment and propeller. Lead improves the cutting performance of brass; this free-cutting brass is often used as a watch part. Brass castings are commonly used to make valves and pipe fittings.
Bronze: Originally refers to copper-tin alloys, and copper alloys other than brass and white copper are called bronzes, and they are often given the name of the first major added element before the bronze name. Tin bronze has good casting performance, anti-friction performance and good mechanical properties, and is suitable for manufacturing bearings, worm gears, gears, etc. Lead bronze is a widely used bearing material for modern engines and grinders. Aluminum bronze has high strength, good wear resistance and corrosion resistance, and is used for casting gears, bushings and marine propellers with high load. Beryllium bronze and phosphor bronze have high elastic limit and good electrical conductivity, and are suitable for manufacturing precision springs and electrical contact components. Beryllium bronze is also used to make non-sparking tools used in coal mines, oil depots, and so on.
Copper: Copper alloy with nickel as the main additive element. The copper-nickel binary alloy is called ordinary white copper; the white copper alloy with manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum and other elements is called complex white copper. Industrial copper is divided into two categories: structural copper and electrical copper. Structural white copper is characterized by good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, and beautiful color. This white copper is widely used in the manufacture of precision machinery, chemical machinery and marine components. Electrical copper copper generally has good thermoelectric properties.
Manganese copper, constantan and copper are manganese white copper with different manganese content. They are materials used in the manufacture of precision electrical instruments, rheostats, precision resistors, strain gauges, thermocouples and the like.
1) Ordinary brass: It is an alloy composed of copper and zinc. When the zinc content is less than 39%, zinc can dissolve in copper to form a single phase a, which is called single-phase brass. It has good plasticity and is suitable for cold and hot press processing. When the zinc content is greater than 39%, there are a single phase and a copper solid zinc-based b solid solution, which is called dual-phase brass, and b makes the plasticity small and the tensile strength increased, which is only suitable for hot pressure processing. If the mass fraction of zinc continues to increase, the tensile strength will decrease, and it will have no use value. The code is represented by “H + number”, H is brass, and the number is the mass fraction of copper. For example, H68 indicates that the copper content is 68%, and the zinc content is 32%. Brass, and cast brass is “Z” before the code name. For example, ZH62, such as Zcuzn38, the zinc content is 38%, and the balance is copper. Cast brass. H90 and H80 are single-phase, golden yellow, so they are collectively called golden, called plating, decorations, medals, etc. H68 and H59 are dual-phase brasses, which are widely used in electrical components, such as bolts, nuts, washers, springs, etc. In general, single-phase brass for cold deformation processing and dual-phase brass for hot deformation processing.
2) Special brass: A multi-component alloy composed of other alloy elements added to ordinary brass is called brass. The elements often added are lead, tin, aluminum, etc., which can be called lead brass, tin brass, and machining brass accordingly. The purpose of adding alloy elements. It is mainly to improve the tensile strength and improve the processability. Code: “H + main plus element symbol (except zinc) + copper mass fraction + main plus element mass fraction + other element mass fraction” means. For example, HPb59-1 indicates that the mass fraction of copper is 59%, the mass fraction of lead with main plus element is 1%, and the balance is zinc-lead brass.
2. Bronze: In addition to brass and white copper, the rest of the copper alloys are collectively referred to as bronze. Bronze can be divided into tin bronze and special bronze (ie, Wuxi bronze). Code: The expression method is composed of “Q + main plus element symbol and mass fraction + mass fraction of other elements”. For casting products, add “Z” before the code, such as: Qal7 means aluminum containing 7%, and the remaining aluminum bronze ZQsn10-1 means 10% tin, and the other alloy elements are 1%, the balance is Foundry tin bronze for copper.
1) Tin bronze: a copper-tin alloy consisting mainly of tin plus elements, also known as tin bronze.
When the tin content is less than 5 to 6%, tin dissolves in copper to form a solid solution, and the plasticity increases. When the tin content is more than 5 to 6%, due to the presence of Cu31sb8-based solid solution, the tensile strength decreases. The tin bronze content of tin bronze is mostly between 3 and 14%. When the tin content is less than 5%, it is suitable for cold deformation processing. When the tin content is 5 to 7%, it is suitable for hot deformation processing. When the tin content is greater than 10%, it is suitable for casting. Because a and the electrode potential are similar, and the tin in the composition is nitrided to form a dense tin dioxide film, the resistance to atmospheric and seawater is increased, but the acid resistance is poor. Because tin bronze has a wide crystallization temperature range, poor fluidity, it is not easy to form concentrated shrinkage, but it is easy to form dendrite segregation and dispersed shrinkage, and the casting shrinkage is small. Complex shape. The condition of large wall thickness is not suitable for casting which requires high density and good sealing. Tin bronze has good antifriction, antimagnetic and low temperature toughness. Tin bronze can be divided into two categories: pressure processed tin bronze and cast tin bronze according to production methods.
A. Press-processed tin bronze: Tin content is generally less than 8%. It should be machinined by hot and cold pressure into plates, strips, rods, tubes and other profiles. After work hardening, its tensile strength and hardness increase, while plasticity decreases. After re-annealing, the plasticity can be improved at a higher tensile strength, and especially a high elastic limit can be obtained. Applicable instruments require corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant parts, elastic parts, anti-magnetic parts, and sliding bearings, shaft sleeves in the machine, etc. Commonly used are Qsn4-3 Qsn6.5 ~ 0.1.
B. Casting tin bronze: It is supplied by ingots and used by the foundry to cast castings. It is suitable for castings with complex shapes but low density requirements, such as sliding bearings and gears. Commonly used are ZQsn10-1 and ZQsn6-6-3.
2) Special bronze: Add other elements to replace tin or Wuxi bronze. Most special bronzes have higher mechanical properties, wear resistance and corrosion resistance than tin bronze. Aluminum bronze (QAL7 QAL5) lead bronze is commonly used. (ZQPB30) and so on. Copper-based alloys with nickel as the main additive element are silver-white and are called white copper. Nickel content is usually 10%, 15%, 20%, the higher the content, the whiter the color. The copper-nickel binary alloy is called ordinary white copper, and the copper-nickel alloy with elements such as manganese, iron, zinc, and aluminum is called complex white copper. Pure copper plus nickel can significantly improve strength, corrosion resistance, resistance, and thermoelectricity. Industrial copper is divided into structural copper and electrical copper according to different performance characteristics and uses, which meet various corrosion resistance and special electrical and thermal properties.
Typical grade, chemical composition (%) (mass fraction): Sn (tin), Al (aluminum), Fe (iron), Pb (lead), Sb (antimony), Bi (bismuth), Si (silicon), P ( Phosphorus), Cu, and impurities.
Types and distribution of copper ore,
According to its geological — industrial types, it can be divided into:
(1) porphyry type
(2) sand shale type
(3) copper-nickel sulfide type
(4) pyrite type
(5) copper-uranium-gold type
(6) natural copper type
vein type
(8) carbonate type
(9) skarn type
Porphyry-type: Porphyry-type copper deposits are copper deposits with large reserves and low-availability and large-scale mechanized open-pit copper deposits. The ore reserves often reach hundreds of millions of tons. The grade of copper is often less than 1%. According to statistics from 103 porphyry deposits in the world The average amount of ore in a single deposit can reach 550 million tons and the copper grade is 0.6%. It is one of the important types of copper ore industry in the world.
Distribution: The known porphyry copper deposits are mostly distributed in:
(1) the Pacific Rim, including the south. Narrow porphyry copper belts on the margins of the North American continent, such as Lonex, Canada, Falicopa, Bingham, U.S.A., Molenzie, Erie, Santa Rita, Canane, Mexico A, La Caridadela, Cerro Colorado in Panama, Mickeyi Peru in Peru, Cerro Foldi. Cuahoné El Abra in Chile, Chuquicamata, La Escondida , El Salvador and El Ternte, etc.,
(2) Tethys porphyry copper ore belt, including Rexke, Hungary, Medanpec, Yugoslavia, Salcheshmei and Makistan, Iran Chage area ore deposits.
(3) Central Asia-Mongolia, important mineral deposits are Carmackel in eastern Uzbekistan, Koonlad north of Lake Balkhash in Kazakhstan, and Ergantu in north-central Mongolia to Chagan in southern Obo Suburga and the Alenor deposit in the east.
Sand-shale type: Sand-shale type copper deposits refer to layered copper deposits in sedimentary rocks of different ages.The deposits are produced in a set of sedimentary rocks or sedimentary metamorphic rocks.It is one of the main industrial types of copper mines in the world, accounting for the world. The copper reserves are about 30%. The deposit is characterized by its large scale, high grade, and abundant associated components, so its economic value is huge.
Distribution: This type of deposit is widely distributed in the world. In addition to the above copper belts, there are the former Soviet Union Udokkan, Jezkazgan Copper Mine, Whitepan, USA, Western Montana, USA, and southwestern Canada. The Belt copper belt, and the Kodo copper belt in Bolivia. The huge Aynak copper mine discovered in Afghanistan in recent years and the Salobo copper mine found in Brazil belong to this type.
Pyrite-type copper ore: Pyrite-type copper ore refers to a ore deposit containing a large amount of pyrite and a certain amount of copper, lead, and zinc, which is connected to the submarine volcanism. It is often referred to in the West as “block sulfide” “Mineral deposits” At least 420 deposits of this type have been found in the world. Canada, the United States, the former Soviet Union, Spain, Portugal, Cyprus, South Africa and Japan are all important sources of such deposits.
Massive sulfide deposits: This modern deposit was first discovered on the eastern Pacific ridge near 21 degrees north latitude in 1978. Although the copper and zinc grades were high (6% copper, 29% zinc), a long 970 meters, 200 meters wide, 35 meters high, with a polymetallic massive sulfide deposit of 25 million tons of ore, for the first time, it has met the requirements of industrial deposits, and its ore contains copper up to 11% and zinc 0.8% It also contains a small amount of silver (PPM), molybdenum (0.03%) and tin (0.03%).
Distribution: In 1982, the United States continued to conduct investigations in the 13 degrees north latitude and found several mineral deposits. Recently, it has 1% of the center of the Exproule in the waters off Vancouver Island, Canada, but in the former Soviet Union this type is first-class Importantly, it accounts for 30.6% of its total copper reserves. Important deposits of this type are: Sudbury, Thompson, Linlec, Canada. Duluth Complex of the United States, Bechenga, former Soviet Union, Novo Rilsk, Tarnach, “October”, the Kambald complex in Australia, the Godalach Belt in Finland, and of course the oversized Baijiazui in Jinchuan, China.
Other types: In addition to the above types, there are vein types, natural copper types, carbonate type skarn types, etc., which together account for 3.6% of the world’s total copper reserves, but for different countries, these types may It is important.For example, the skarn type is a very important industrial type for China, accounting for 28% of China’s total copper reserves. Therefore, all countries should look for high-quality mineral deposits with the most economic value according to their specific geological environment. That is, the grade is high, the scale is large, the shape is appropriate, and the ore belt boundary is obvious. The ore is easy to handle and contains valuable by-product deposits to ensure high profits and long-term production. The most important of these factors is to have a high grade. The most likely source of this high grade copper deposit will be volcanic origin. Pyrite-type copper deposits, layered deposits, and some skarn deposits.
Applications in the electrical industry
Power transmission: A large amount of highly conductive copper is consumed in power transmission, which is mainly used for power applications. Cables, busbars, transformers, switches, plug-in components and connectors. In the process of wire and cable power transmission, electrical energy is wasted because of resistance heating. From the perspective of energy saving and economy, the “best cable cross-section” standard is currently being promoted in the world. In the past, the standard was set from the perspective of reducing the investment for one installation. In order to minimize the cable cross-section, the minimum allowable cable size was determined at the rated current required by the design so as not to cause dangerous overheating. Cables laid according to this standard, although the installation cost is low; but in long-term use, the resistance energy consumption is relatively large. The “best cable cross-section” standard takes into account the two factors of one-time installation cost and power consumption, and appropriately enlarges the cable size to achieve the goals of energy saving and best comprehensive economic benefits. According to the new standard, the cross section of the cable is often more than doubled compared to the old standard, and energy savings of about 50% can be achieved. In the past, due to the shortage of steel in our country, considering that the proportion of aluminum is only 30% of copper, we have adopted measures to replace copper with aluminum in overhead high-voltage transmission lines that want to reduce weight. From the perspective of environmental protection, air transmission lines will be converted into underground cables. In this case, compared with copper, aluminum has the disadvantages of poor electrical conductivity and large cable size, which are dwarfed.
Motor manufacturing: In motor manufacturing, copper alloys with high conductivity and high strength are widely used. The main copper parts are the stator, rotor and shaft head. In large motors, the windings need to be cooled with water or hydrogen, which is called dual-water internal cooling or hydrogen-cooled motors, which requires large lengths of hollow wires. Electric motors are large households that use electrical energy, accounting for about 60% of the total electrical energy supply. The cumulative electricity cost of a motor is very high. Generally, the cost of the motor is reached within the first 500 hours of operation, which is equivalent to 4-16 times the cost in one year, and it can reach 200 times the cost during the entire working life. A small increase in the efficiency of the motor can not only save energy, but also obtain significant economic benefits. The development and application of high-efficiency motors is a hot topic in the world. Due to the internal energy consumption of the motor, it mainly comes from the resistance loss of the windings; therefore, increasing the copper wire cross section is a key measure for the development of efficient motors. Compared with traditional motors, some high-efficiency motors that have been pioneered in recent years have increased the use of copper windings by 25 to 100%. Currently, the US Department of Energy is funding a development project to produce motor rotors using copper-cast technology.
Communication cables: Since the 1980s, due to the advantages of large current carrying capacity of optical fiber cables, copper cables have been continuously replaced on communication trunk lines, and they have been rapidly promoted and applied. However, the conversion of electrical energy into light energy, and the lines that feed users, still requires the use of large amounts of copper. With the development of the communications industry, people are increasingly dependent on communications, and the demand for fiber optic cables and copper wires will continue to increase.
Residential electrical circuits: In recent years, with the improvement of people’s living standards in China, household appliances have rapidly spread, and residential electricity loads have grown rapidly. As shown in Figure 6.6, the residential electricity consumption in 1987 was 26.96 billion kWh (1 kW = 1 kW · hour), and it rose to 113.1 billion kWh in 1996, an increase of 3.2 times. Nevertheless, there is still a large gap compared with developed countries. For example, in 1995 the per capita electricity consumption in the United States was 14.6 times that of China, and Japan was 8.6 times that of China. The electricity consumption of Chinese residents will continue to develop greatly in the future. Expected to increase from 1996 to 2005 l. 4 times.
Applications in the mechanical and metallurgical industries: Copper parts can be found in almost all machines. In addition to the large amount of steel used in motors, circuits, hydraulic systems, pneumatic systems and control systems, there are a wide variety of transmission and fixing parts made of brass and bronze, such as gears, worm wheels, worms, couplings, fasteners, Screws, screws, nuts, etc. abound. Nearly all parts that make relative mechanical movements must use bearings or bushings made of reduced-wear copper alloys, especially large-scale 10,000-ton extruder, cylinder liners and slides of forging presses are almost made of bronze. , Casting weight can reach several tons. Many elastic components use silicon bronze and tin bronze as materials. Welding tools, die-casting molds, etc. are inseparable from copper alloys, and so on.
Metallurgical equipment: The metallurgical industry is a large consumer of electrical energy, known as the “electric tiger”. In the construction of metallurgical plants, there must usually be a huge transmission and distribution system and electrical operation equipment that rely on copper to work. In addition, in pyrometallurgy, continuous casting technology has occupied a dominant position. Among them, a key component, a crystallizer, mostly uses copper alloys such as chrome copper, silver copper and other high strength and high thermal conductivity. Water-cooled crucibles for vacuum arc furnaces and electroslag furnaces in electric metallurgy are made of steel pipes. The induction coils of various induction heating are wound with copper tubes or special-shaped copper tubes, which are cooled by water in the middle.
Alloy additives: Copper is an important additive element in alloys such as steel and aluminum. A small amount of copper (0.2-0.5%) is added to low-alloy structural steel, which can improve the strength of the steel and the resistance to atmospheric and marine corrosion. Adding copper to corrosion-resistant cast iron and stainless steel can further improve their corrosion resistance. The high-nickel alloy containing about 30% copper is a well-known high-strength corrosion-resistant “Monel alloy” and is widely used in the nuclear industry. Copper is contained in many high-strength aluminum alloys. Through quenching and aging heat treatment, dispersedly dispersed fine particles are precipitated in the alloy, and its strength is significantly improved, which is called aging hardened aluminum alloy. Among them, Dura Aluminum or Hard Aluminum is famous. It is an aluminum alloy containing copper, manganese, and magnesium. It is an important structural material for manufacturing aircraft and rockets.
Applications in architecture
Pipeline system: Because steel water pipe has many advantages such as beautiful and durable, convenient installation, safety and fire protection, health care, etc., it has a significantly superior price-performance ratio compared with galvanized steel pipes and plastic pipes. In residential and public buildings, water supply, heating, air supply and fire sprinkler systems are increasingly favored by people and have become the materials of choice. In developed countries, copper water supply systems have accounted for a large proportion. The Manhattan building, known as the sixth tallest building in the world in New York, USA, is only for water systems, and uses 60,000 feet (1 km) of copper pipes. In Europe, steel pipes for drinking water are heavily consumed. The consumption of drinking water pipes in the UK averages 1.6 kg per person per year, compared with 0.2 kg in Japan. Because galvanized steel is susceptible to corrosion, many countries have banned it. Hong Kong’s use was banned as early as January 1996, and Shanghai became effective in May 1998. It is imperative for China to promote the use of copper pipeline systems in housing construction.
House renovation: It has been a tradition in Europe to use steel plates for roofs and eaves. It is even used as wall decoration in the Nordic countries. Copper has good resistance to atmospheric corrosion, is durable, and can be recycled. It has good processability and can be easily made into complex shapes, and it also has beautiful colors; therefore, it is very suitable for house decoration. It has a long history of application on the roofs of ancient buildings such as churches, and it still emits attractive luster to this day; and it is increasingly used in the construction of modern large buildings and even apartments and houses. For example: In London, the “Commonwealth Council” building representing modern British architectural art has a complex roof shape, constructed of steel plates, and weighs about 25 tons; the Crystal Palace Sports Center, opened in 1966, has a wavy roof made of 60 tons of steel and many more. According to statistics, copper plates used as roofs consume an average of 0.8 kg per person per year in Germany and 0.2 kg in the United States. In addition, the interior decoration of the house, such as: door handles, locks, hundreds of pages, hurdles, lamps, wall decorations and kitchen appliances, etc. The use of steel products is not only durable, sterilized and sanitary, but also decorated with elegance, which is popular favorite.
Natural attributes of copper: Copper is one of the earliest ancient metals discovered by mankind, and mankind began to use copper more than three thousand years ago. Copper in nature is divided into natural copper, copper oxide ore and copper sulfide ore. The reserves of natural copper and copper oxide are small. At present, more than 80% of the copper in the world is refined from copper sulfide ores. Copper metal, element symbol Cu, atomic weight 63.54, specific gravity 8.92, melting point 1083Co. Pure copper is light rose or light red. Copper has many valuable physical and chemical characteristics, such as its high thermal and electrical conductivity, strong chemical stability, large tensile strength, easy welding, corrosion resistance, plasticity, and ductility. Pure copper can be drawn into very thin copper wires to make very thin copper foil. It can form alloys with zinc, tin, lead, manganese, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron and other metals. The alloys formed are mainly divided into three categories: brass is copper-zinc alloy, bronze is copper-tin alloy, and white copper is copper-cobalt-nickel alloy. The development of copper metallurgy technology has gone through a long process, but so far copper smelting is still dominated by fire smelting. Its output accounts for about 85% of the world’s total copper output. Modern wet smelting technology is gradually being promoted. Up to 20% of the total output, the introduction of wet smelting has greatly reduced the cost of copper smelting.
Editing trends
1. International copper consumption still maintains a certain growth rate, but the growth rate has dropped: since the 1990s. Two types of countries play a major role in the growth of international copper consumption. One is the developed countries in North America and Europe, such as the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan and other countries. The other is the developing and less developed countries and regions in Asia and South America, such as China, India, South Korea, Taiwan Province of China, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Chile and other countries. ; Shaw fee ratio roughly equals each of the two categories of countries. Looking at the future development trend, the copper consumption of the first type of countries has basically stabilized, and the growth rate of copper consumption is relatively low, generally between 1% and 3%. The economic development potential of the second group of countries is large, and copper consumption may maintain a rapid growth rate. In particular, China, India, and Russia have experienced rapid growth in copper consumption over the past two years, with fees increasing by more than 6% to 10%. It is expected that the growth of world copper consumption may slow down in the near future, but the long-term growth of the international market will not change.
2. The development of international copper mines has been increased, but the supply is still tight in the short term: against the background of the rapid rise in international copper prices and the continued tight supply of mineral resources, the prices of copper concentrates have been rising all the way, while the profits of mining enterprises have risen sharply, It has also stimulated mining enterprises to increase resources development efforts and promote rapid increase in production capacity. It is expected that the growth rate of global mineral output in 2007 will reach more than 5.5%, and the amount of metal will be about 16.5 million tons. Among them, the copper-containing copper output of China’s copper concentrates reached 830,000 tons (news), an increase of 9.97% year-on-year, accounting for about 5% of the global total output. According to CRU related data statistics, in recent years, the development projects of c145 copper resources have been concentrated in South America, the main countries are Chile and Peru. The copper mining resources development projects in the Asian region have also become a rapid growth trend. The main countries are China, India, Outer Mongolia and other countries. It is expected that most of the new global production capacity will be put into production next year. The growth rate of copper concentrate output in 2008 will be higher than this year. At about 8%, the amount of copper metal produced is about 17.82 million tons. However, we believe that although the supply is still growing rapidly, it has not been fast enough to reverse the shortage of copper concentrate supply in the short term. Any major emergencies affecting copper production will cause a shortage of concentrate supply. Therefore, it is expected that the global copper concentrate supply and demand situation in the past two years is still not optimistic. Domestically, although domestic mining enterprises have increased their investment efforts, they are still far from meeting domestic demand. It is expected that China’s copper concentrate imports in 2008 will continue to increase to a certain extent.
3. The international copper price has fluctuated greatly recently: In the past few years, copper has exhibited two attributes, one as a commodity attribute and one as a financial attribute. As a commodity, copper has been in tight supply for the past few years, and the price of copper has naturally kept rising. The high returns brought by the rise in copper prices will undoubtedly attract more funds. These funds consider copper as part of the investment portfolio. Investing in copper can improve returns and avoid the risk of inflation, so copper has been given financial support. Attributes. After entering 2003, the price of copper has begun to enter an upward channel. The average annual price has risen from 1579 US dollars in 2003 to 6,665 US dollars per ton in 2006, an increase of 322, of which on May 11, 2006, the copper price reached 8800 US dollars in an instant. The historical high level of copper per ton has exaggerated the financial attributes of copper to the extreme. At the same time, it has bid farewell to $ 3,000 per ton and entered the era of high copper prices. Since then, under the influence of strikes, near-winds, funds, inventory, US subprime debt turmoil, Chinese demand, etc., the price of copper has begun to fluctuate widely, with fluctuations ranging from $ 5,500 to $ 8,500. Judging from the current situation, although the economic situation of the United States and some developed countries in the recent period is not optimistic and has a certain restraining effect on copper prices, low inventory and strong expectations for Chinese copper demand are still the main factors supporting copper prices. Therefore, it is expected that the price of copper will still be relatively high and fluctuate widely in the near future.
4. The pace of international large-scale copper companies’ joint reorganization is accelerating. The monopoly of mineral resources is increasing: the wave of economic globalization has spread to various fields, and the copper industry is no exception. In order to adapt to market competition, in recent years, large-scale foreign c145 tellurium copper companies have jointly reorganized. The pace of development has accelerated, and industrial concentration has also increased. Mergers, mergers and acquisitions, and broadening of the scope of business have become a trend. So we continue to see acquisitions, mergers, and alliances to form larger multinational companies (most of them Is a mining, processing, and processing joint enterprise) to achieve large-scale operations and expand market share.

Cold And Hot Forging Equipment And Forging Process

A prominent problem that aging brings to Chinese companies is the gradual disappearance of the demographic dividend, which means that labor-intensive low-end industries will lose their competitive advantage, and modern products will continue to increase their processing accuracy requirements, which will guide automation and robotic equipment to replace more More labor entering the workshop is also an inevitable trend of China’s industrial development in the future. As a developing country, the premise of considering all production technology issues must be applicable. Rongcheng Jinchen Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Jinchen Machine City”) is a professional press manufacturing company. In recent years, it has focused on the national requirements for material and energy consumption, energy saving and emission reduction. Focusing on the development concept of equipment and service technology, we have cooperated with Jinan Second Machine Tool Group Co., Ltd., China’s largest forging press manufacturing company, to develop a variety of metal forging automation production equipment suitable for China’s forging industry.

     Cold extrusion is currently one of the more advanced processes in metal processing, and it is an important process to achieve less and no cutting. The cold forging equipment produced by Jinchen Machinery mainly includes vertical elbow-type cold extrusion and Naiqing Wanqi Nuuo Kaihe dry multi-link cold extruder.

Vertical toggle cold extruder

     Elbow cold extruder is suitable for cold extrusion, volume and plane precision pressing of various small processing parts. The fuselage adopts steel plate welding structure to ensure the strength, rigidity and other performance requirements of the fuselage. The main drive system adopts a crank and elbow mechanism to improve the movement characteristics of the slider and achieve the ideal slider operating speed: the clutch-brake uses a dry (or wet) sheet (or block) low-inertia structure to act Sensitive, stable combination, good interlocking performance and long service life. The number of strokes of the slider can be adjusted steplessly, and the micro-speed adjustment for mold adjustment can be realized at 1 or 2 times / minute; the height adjustment of the mold has self-locking and digital display functions, high display accuracy, convenient and reliable adjustment. This equipment adopts cam-type rigid ejection hood, which can make the processed parts eject from the mold smoothly, and it is especially suitable for the requirements of cold extrusion processing on the lower ejection material. Tonnage limit setting can be performed. When the cold extruder is overloaded or overloaded and the actual tonnage is greater than the set value, it will automatically alarm immediately and stop the cold extruder. The main lubrication system uses a thin oil automatic circulation lubrication system. Achieved quantitative and monitored lubrication to ensure that the cold extruder is in good working condition.
     The vertical toggle cold extruder can use a three-coordinate feeder to automate the loading and unloading of workpieces, thereby improving production efficiency and ensuring the safety of operators. The electrical control adopts imported PLP control, which makes the cold extruder control more safe and reliable, and can implement single, continuous and inching operation specifications. The device also has facilities such as safety bolts, two-hand operation buttons, emergency stop buttons, position-limiting devices and interlocking devices, which ensure the safety of the device and operators.

Vertical large stroke multi-link cold extruder

     The long-stroke multi-link mechanical press mostly adopts the eight-link mechanism. From the characteristics of the rod system, it can be seen that the slider of the press of the eight-link mechanism has a fast initial movement speed from the top dead center to a stroke close to the bottom dead center. The speed drops significantly, and there is an approximate pressure holding process at the bottom dead center. After the bottom dead center, it returns to the top dead center quickly, and the stroke of the slider can be very long. The movement characteristics fully meet the various conditions of the cold extrusion process. The fast slide down and return can reduce the auxiliary time of production and improve the production efficiency. The slow stroke near the bottom dead point is good for the characteristics of the cold extrusion process. The slow extrusion process is conducive to the forming of the workpiece and the improvement of the mold life, and the approximate holding pressure of the bottom dead center is more beneficial to the stable forming of the workpiece. The eight-link mechanism press can easily realize the long stroke of the slider. The long-stroke multi-link press is necessary for the cold extrusion of long rod-shaped workpieces. The long-stroke multi-link press has human In the mold mounting space, the long bar-shaped workpiece can be conveniently loaded and unloaded, which widens the working range of the press and can be adapted to the cold extrusion production of various parts. The long-stroke multi-link press has a fixed bottom dead point, which means that the parts it produces have a stable geometric size, which can ensure the high precision of the parts. Another feature of the mechanical press is the use of a pre-tensioned body. The high rigidity of the body is important for the cold extrusion process. High rigidity body is an important condition for cold extrusion to produce high precision parts. The slider and the base of the multi-link press can be easily equipped with a top-feeding device and a bottom-feeding device to meet the various process requirements of the top-down and bottom-feeding in cold extrusion production. Long-stroke multi-link presses are ideal production equipment for the cold extrusion process. As the cold extrusion process is more and more applied to the production of various parts, long-stroke multi-link presses will also have A good prospect for rapid development. At present, this product is only produced by foreign counterparts, and it is blank in China.

Cold forging process

     Single-step cold forging is generally used for simple parts. The main processes are: forward extrusion, reverse extrusion, and compound extrusion. In general, complex parts need to be arranged in multiple processes. Typical processes include roughing, preforming, forming, punching / cutting, which are suitable for automated production. In addition, cold-blocking forging is also used in the process of bevel gears and constant velocity universal joint star sleeves and other complex parts. Straight bevel gears produced by the cold precision die forging process can achieve grades 7 to 8 and can be directly applied to cars.

Warm forging press

     According to the needs of the domestic market, Jinchen Machinery has developed a double-link warm forging press suitable for multi-station automated production. The main features are the high rigidity of the machine tool, the large stroke of the slider, the large nominal force stroke, and the large mold height, which can meet the requirements of various warm forging processes. Equipped with an automatic lubrication system to automatically lubricate the guide rails and bearings of the press. The press is controlled by the “electricity and gas” microelectronic computer. The microelectronic computer controls the start, work and stop of the press. At the same time, tonnage indication, temperature monitoring, lubrication monitoring, oil level monitoring and fault display are automatically monitored to monitor the working status of the press.

The warm forging press has the functions of inching, single-shot, continuous, die change, and die change trolley.

The main motor of the warm forging press has the function of variable frequency speed regulation and die replacement. During the mold test, the main motor can be set to a low speed, and the slow running of the slider provides convenience for debugging and replacing the mold, and the equipment is safer.

     The warm forging press is equipped with a button station. The start and stop of the main motor of the warm forging press, the adjustment of the height of the mold, and the operation of the fixtures and jig changing trolley are realized through the button station. The operation station set on the button station has the functions of setting, modifying and storing the forging process parameters of the warm forging press. It also has fault display, diagnosis and real-time alarm functions.

Warm forging process

     Taking the warm-forging forming of the three-pin sleeve of constant velocity universal joint as an example, three stations of forward extrusion, emblem thickening and reverse extrusion forming can be used for cold finishing after warm forging.

Hot forging equipment

  Hot die forging press is one of the most widely used die forging equipment in modern die forging workshop. The walking beam servo feeding automatic forging production line produced by Jinchen Machinery is a hot die forging press. Good rigidity, fast slider speed, good impact forming, can withstand large eccentric loads, high precision forgings, better control of forging height tolerances, high material utilization and production efficiency, easy to implement in automation, It requires low operating level of workers, and has low noise and vibration. The walking beam servo feeding system has high feeding accuracy. The repeatability is high, the system runs stably and reliably, and the movement trajectory and speed of the three coordinates of the clamping, lifting, and feeding of the walking beam are all flexible and editable. It is suitable for automatic feeding of a variety of forgings, and can process various forgings Data storage, the data system can be called when it is used again, which greatly reduces production preparation time and improves production efficiency. The production line is equipped with a variety of monitoring and alarm systems to ensure the personal safety of operators and the safety of equipment operation. The MPA / MPB series hot die forging press produced by Jinchen Machinery is an improved and improved model based on the introduction of the MP series hot die forging press of the original German company Eumuco. In the original design, the The nominal force stroke is increased, and the scope of use is expanded. The equipment is mainly composed of the fuselage, transmission, connecting rod, slider, eccentric shaft, clutch, brake, slider adjustment device, top material, bottom material, balance cylinder and pneumatic system. And other components. Equipped with an automatic lubrication system to automatically lubricate the guide rails and bearings of the press. The “electric-gas” microcomputer used in the press can control the start, work and stop of the press. At the same time, the tonnage indication, temperature monitoring, lubrication monitoring, oil level monitoring and fault display have the function of automatically monitoring the working status of the press.

Thermal occlusion forging

     Thermal blocking forging equipment needs to meet the following 4 requirements:

(1) The pressure-stroke curve of the equipment conforms to the closed forging process.

(2) The mounting space is large enough.

(3) The equipment has high precision.

(4) Equipped with top loading device.

According to the process requirements, the original MPA hot die forging was developed to meet the requirements of hot closed forging.

     Main features of occlusive forging equipment:

(1) The eccentric shaft and pin-type double-link structure of the MP hot die forging press has strong anti-eccentric load capacity.

(2) The slider adopts X-type guide rail. It has the characteristics of small heat distortion and high accuracy.

(3) The brake is water-cooled, which can meet the requirements of high-speed forging.

(4) Large nominal force stroke, suitable for forging of warm forging, extrusion and closed forging parts.

(5) The blow energy is large, which can meet the requirements of general enterprise selection.

(6) Equipped with upper and lower loading device.

Application Status Of Forged Aluminum Wheels

Forged aluminum wheel Yi is lighter than cast aluminum wheel Yi. It has a high density metallographic structure and good mechanical properties. The mechanical properties are more than 18% higher, the weight is 20% lighter, and the surface finish is good. It has better safety performance. It is more suitable for high-end cars, heavy trucks and luxury passenger cars. It has the characteristics of high added value. But the technology is complicated, the equipment investment is large, and the production cost is high, so it has not been promoted and applied in a large area.

Application status of forged aluminum wheels

World application status

At present, the world’s forged aluminum wheels are widely used in trucks, buses, high-end cars and motorcycles. 5 axis wheels have been used in at least 50% of passenger cars and trucks in the US, Europe, and Japan. Among them, the assembly rate of forged aluminum wheels on commercial vehicles in the United States is higher, followed by Europe; in addition, the assembly rates of forged aluminum wheels on Japan and South Korea have also increased in recent years. However, the cost of forged aluminum wheels is relatively high, so the passenger car market is generally used by high-end cars.

Application in China

China’s forged aluminum wheels are widely used in passenger cars, but their application in commercial vehicles and trucks has just begun. At present, most trucks and buses are still mainly steel wheels. In recent years, some commercial vehicle companies such as FAW Jiefang, Dongfeng, Zhongtong Bus, Suzhou Jinlong, Yutong, etc. have also begun to assemble forged aluminum wheels. Shenlong and Dajinlong also have this idea. In addition, some special-purpose vehicle manufacturers in China have also begun to try to assemble forged aluminum wheels. Yutong ZK6128HB passenger car was equipped with forged aluminum wheels at the 8th International Exhibition of Highway, Waterway Technology and Transportation Equipment in 2006. This is the first time that forged aluminum wheels have been applied to Chinese passenger car brands. With the advancement of automotive advanced manufacturing technology and precision forging technology, the application of forged aluminum wheels on some special vehicles such as tank trucks and tractors will also increase.

Production status

World production status

At present, the world’s first forging aluminum wheel Yisheng primary production companies include Alcoa, Germany’s Otto fuchs company, Japan’s Enkei company and so on.

Alcoa is the world’s largest manufacturer of forged aluminum wheels for trucks and buses, with the most product specifications. Its annual output can reach 2.35 million units and its annual sales exceed 500 million US dollars. Alcoa’s forged aluminum wheels account for more than 75% of the international market, including about 55% in the North American market, about 50% in the European market, and about 99% in the Australian market. Its main products include Dura-Bright, Dura–Flange, LWL ONE, Severe Series and light truck trailer wheels, etc., which have been supplied to Audi, Ferrari, Chevrolet and many commercial and special vehicles worldwide.

Alcoa’s forged aluminum alloy wheels are applied in 6061-T6 materials. The main manufacturing process is metal forging. The billet was forged and formed by a 8000t press. After the blanking is completed, the reinforcement is processed to optimize the mechanical properties of the material, and then finished. The high-precision CNC machine tools ensure that each wheel has a high degree of roundness, which minimizes wheel running. Problems such as deflection, deflection, etc., and then carry out processes such as opening and surface treatment.

At the end of 2012, Alcoa set up an aluminum wheel factory in Suzhou, China. This is the first wheel product factory established by Alcoa in China after North America, Europe and Japan. It is currently in production and will provide forged aluminum wheels for commercial vehicles.

China production status

In recent years, China’s forged aluminum wheel manufacturers have developed rapidly. The main manufacturers include CITIC Dicastal, Taiwan Qiaoxin, Zhejiang Hongxin, Wuxi Yingchang, Gem Heavy Industry, Wanfeng Auto, Jiangsu Huatai, etc.

CITIC Dicastal mainly produces low-pressure casting, forging and cast-spinning aluminum alloy wheels. It is the only aluminum wheel manufacturer in the world with these three forming technologies. The company built Asia’s first and second full-automatic forged aluminum wheel production lines in 2004 and 2005, respectively. The size of the forged wheel production is 14 “-20”, and the production capacity can reach 7-11 million pieces per year. The product categories include More than 50% of truck wheels, high-end passenger car wheels and motorcycle wheels are exported to the world.

 In 2011, the sales volume of CITIC Dicastal Aluminium Wheel Co., Ltd. was 25.02 million, and its current international and Chinese market share reached 14% and 40%, of which high-end products accounted for 70%. The company has established three R & D centers in Europe, Japan, and the United States, using the most advanced spinning technology. 60% of its products are used by Mercedes-Benz, GM, Peugeot, Audi, Ford, Honda and other world-renowned manufacturers. 40% are It is supported by Shanghai Volkswagen, Shanghai GM, FAW-Volkswagen, Shenyang BMW, Tianjin Toyota, Guangzhou Honda and other auto plants.

93.5% of Taiwan Qiaoxin’s main products are forged aluminum wheels, and it has a complete machining, polishing and painting production line. The hot forging / spinning process is mainly used to produce forged aluminum wheels. The quality of the finished product is about 15% lighter than that of die casting. Forged aluminum wheels manufactured by Taiwan Qiaoxin are supplied to GM, Ford and Chrysler.

Zhejiang Hongxin is a company specializing in the production of forged aluminum wheels. It mainly produces forged aluminum wheels for trucks (buses), cars and motorcycles, and uses advanced AD forging technology and equipment. Its forging machines and spinning machines are imported from the world. The production capacity of forged aluminum wheels in 2012 reached 1 million pieces / year, and in 2015 it reached 2 million pieces / year.

Wuxi Yingchang developed a forged aluminum wheel in 2010, using a semi-automatic assembly line formed by domestic forging equipment and a special heating furnace, and developed a special mold by itself. The forged aluminum wheel is produced without rough edges, which greatly improves the material utilization rate. And reduce aluminum 6063 and production costs, filling a gap in China. At present, it has achieved large-scale production with a production capacity of 100,000 pieces / year, and all its products are exported to Europe and the United States.

Lianyungang Gem Heavy Industry introduces advanced German technology and international advanced equipment. The company mainly produces various trucks, buses, cars and other models of professionally forged aluminum wheels. The company built the first forged aluminum wheel production line in 2013 with a production capacity of 500,000 pieces / year, of which about 95% is for export, and the exporting countries or regions are mainly Australia.

Development Trend of Forged Aluminum Wheels

According to data, the annual output of aluminum alloy wheels in the world is more than 100 million. In 2014, the demand for aluminum alloy wheels was around 250 million. The huge attractiveness of the international aluminum alloy wheels market stimulated the aluminum alloy wheels industry. development of.

From the perspective of Luyi ’s development trend, aluminum alloy wheels are developing in the direction of large diameter, light weight, high strength, and more beautiful. Forged aluminum wheels are more in line with the direction of wheel development in terms of reducing wheel weight and improving strength. Currently China Some cars have already used forged aluminum wheels. If 5% of the aluminum wheels of cars are considered to use forged aluminum wheels, the demand is about 700,000; and the market for forged aluminum wheels of large and medium-sized trucks and buses is in the growth stage. Great potential for development.

In short, the application of forged aluminum wheels in the automotive field will receive more and more attention, and will gradually become the best choice for high-end cars, trucks, and commercial passenger cars.

Problems Existing in Aluminum Wheel Yield Production in China

Backward production process

Chinese aluminum alloy automobile wheel Yi production enterprises mainly use low-cost low-pressure casting and forming processes, accounting for about 80% of Lu Yi ’s total output, followed by low-tech gravity casting processes, which account for about 10% of Lu Yi ’s total output. A few manufacturers use the more advanced forging + spinning forming process. Because of its high labor intensity, severe environmental pollution, and unstable quality, aluminum alloy casting and forming processes have been replaced by forging processes in European and American countries. For Chinese wheel manufacturers, it is imminent to carry out process research and development and eliminate backward production processes.

Low production equipment and tooling technology

The domestic large-scale forging equipment generally has a low degree of automation and poor reliability, and cannot afford large batches of online billeting and spinning processes. CITIC Dicastal and Zhejiang Hongxin’s forging equipment are purchased from Germany and Japan. The online production efficiency is very high. . Most of the forging molds of Chinese enterprises are made of 5CrNiMo, which has a short service life. To meet the needs of large-scale online production, it is important to develop new high-temperature and wear-resistant mold materials.

Insufficient investment in R & D and slow development of the industry

International research on enterprise R & D investment shows that companies whose R & D investment accounts for less than 1% of total sales revenue are difficult to survive, and 1% to 2% barely maintain their survival. Only those who are above 5% can be competitive. In recent years, more and more Chinese cnc machining shop have realized the importance of R & D investment, and are gradually increasing the proportion of technology R & D investment, which has improved their competitiveness. However, China ’s aluminum alloy wheel industry has poor basic technological capabilities, and the R & D investment is still insufficient compared with the world ’s same industry. The R & D investment in the Chinese industry generally accounts for 1% to 3% of sales revenue, while the world ’s lowest R & D investment is 5% High has reached 10%.

Development proposals

To increase research and development efforts to achieve process upgrades

First of all, relevant government departments should increase support, give preferential policies to enterprises in the introduction of advanced technology, technological transformation, and environmental protection and energy saving technologies, and give tax deductions in R & D investment. Second, companies must cooperate with scientific research institutions or specializations. The scientific research institutes in China have established a joint research and development system to apply leading technology to practical production. Third, we must learn from the world’s advanced process technology and production experience so that enterprises have the ability to synchronize research and development with OEMs.

Formulate uniform regulatory standards and establish an industry quality monitoring system

The quality monitoring system of the forged aluminum wheel industry in China is not perfect. At present, there is no uniform regulatory standard in the industry, and there is no national standard to refer to. The current situation is that the wheel material selection, thickness, and specification design are all made by the enterprise. In September 2013, Dongfeng Yueda Kia Motors Co., Ltd. recalled a total of 18,135 K5 vehicles. The reason for the recall was that there were problems with the thickness of the wheel hub and the materials. It may break when impacted, and there were major safety risks. The “hub door” incident sounded the alarm for the entire industry. How to establish an effective quality monitoring system is the biggest problem that China’s wheel industry needs to solve at present.

Increase industry concentration to enhance R & D capabilities and corporate competitiveness

With the development of global economic integration, China’s wheel industry has entered an international competition. To occupy a place in the market, it needs to be brand-centric and market-oriented. Relatively strong wheel manufacturers can acquire, Mergers, alliances, etc. form economies of scale and increase the concentration of industries to enhance industry competitiveness.
Application Status Of Forged Aluminum Wheels

Difference between 3 axis, 4 axis, and 5 axis machining

5 axis cnc machining ship parts

3-axis CNC machining: Generally refers to three axes that move linearly in different directions, such as up and down, front and back, left and right. The three axes can only process one surface at a time, which is suitable for machining some disc parts.

4-axis CNC machining: Add a rotary axis to the three axes, generally 360 ° rotation on the horizontal plane. But cannot rotate at high speed. Suitable for machining some box parts.

5-axis CNC machining: There is one more rotation axis on the four-axis, generally the vertical surface rotates 360 °. The five-axis can already be fully processed, which can achieve one-time clamping, which can reduce clamping costs and reduce product scratches and injuries. It is suitable for processing some multi-position pores and planes, and parts with high processing accuracy requirements, especially parts with strict shape processing requirements.

Although the advantages of five-axis compared to four-axis and three-axis are very prominent, not all products are suitable for five-axis processing, and those that are suitable for three-axis processing are not necessarily suitable for five-axis processing. Five-axis machining will not only increase costs, but the effect is not necessarily good. Only by making reasonable arrangements and developing suitable machine tools for the products can the value of the machine itself be realized.

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How to prevent defects in aluminum castings

The defects of cast aluminum parts are mainly manifested as
1. The structural design of the machining castings is unreasonable, there are sharp corners, and the wall thickness of the casting changes too much.
2. Poor continuity of sand mold (core)
3. Local mold overheating
4.Pouring temperature is too high
5. It is too early to remove the casting from the mold
6. Heat treatment is overheating or overheating, and the cooling rate is excessive
Methods for preventing defects in aluminum castings
1. Improve the structural design of castings,cnc machining,avoid sharp corners, strive for uniform wall thickness and smooth transition
2. Take measures to increase the concession of sand mold (core)
3. Ensure that all parts of the casting are solidified simultaneously or sequentially, and improve the design of the pouring system
4. Reduce the pouring temperature appropriately
5. Control the mold cooling out time.
6. The thermal correction method is used when the casting is deformed.
7. Correctly control the heat treatment temperature and reduce the quenching cooling rate

What Are The Process Characteristics Of Castings?

Machining Castings

Casting is one of the first methods to produce part blanks, especially for parts blanks with some brittle metal or alloy information (such as various cast iron parts, non-ferrous alloy castings, etc.), casting is almost the only processing method. Compared with other processing methods, the casting process has the following characteristics:
1) Machining Castings are not restricted by metal data, scale size and weight. The casting data can be used for all kinds of cast iron, cast steel, aluminum alloy, copper alloy, magnesium alloy, titanium alloy, zinc alloy and various special alloys. The casting can be as small as a few grams and hundreds of tons; the wall thickness of the casting can be 0.5 mm to 1 meter; casting length can be from a few millimeters to a dozen meters.
2) Casting can produce rough shapes with various shapes, especially suitable for producing blanks with parts with messy internal cavities, such as various boxes, cylinders, blades, impellers, etc.
3) The shape and size of the casting can be very close to the part, which saves metal data and saves cutting man-hours.
4) The original materials generally used in castings have a wide range of origins and low cost.
5) The casting process is sensitive and the yield is high. It can be produced by hand or mechanized.

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What Is The Manufacturing Process Of Metal Castings?

What Is The Manufacturing Process Of Metal Forging?

Casting is a manufacturing process in which a molten metal liquid is poured into a mold and cooled and condensed to obtain the desired shape and function. Machining Castings is a common manufacturing method,
The advantages are: low manufacturing cost, high process sensitivity, can obtain messy shapes and large-scale castings, and occupy a large proportion in machinery manufacturing, such as machine tools account for 60 to 80%, cars account for 25%, tractors account for 50 to 60%.
Casting is an ancient manufacturing method that dates back to 6000 years in our country. With the development of industrial skills, the quality of large castings directly affects the quality of products. Therefore, casting occupies an important position in the machinery manufacturing industry. The development of casting skills is also very agile, especially in the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Many new casting methods were presented, such as low-pressure casting, ceramic casting, and continuous casting. They were improved and useful in the second half of the 20th century. .
Xinhui Foundry
Due to advances in requirements for casting quality, casting accuracy, casting cost, and casting automation, casting skills are being developed in the direction of refinement, large-scale, high-quality, automation, and cleanliness. Agile in casting skills, special casting skills, casting automation, and casting modeling skills.
The main processes of casting include metal smelting, model manufacturing, pouring consolidation and demolding. The primary materials for casting are cast steel, cast iron, non-ferrous alloys (copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, etc.).
The casting process can be divided into gravity casting, pressure casting and sand casting.
Sand casting is commonly used as the casting method, followed by special casting methods, such as metal casting, investment casting, and gypsum casting. And sand casting can be divided into clay sand casting, organic binder sand casting, resin self-hardening sand casting, lost foam casting and so on.
Gravity casting refers to the process of injecting molten metal into the mold under the effect of the gravity of the earth, also known as casting. In the broad sense, gravity casting includes sand casting, metal casting, investment casting, mud casting, etc .; narrow gravity casting refers specifically to metal casting.
Pressure casting refers to a process in which a metal liquid is injected into a mold under the effect of other external forces (excluding gravity). In the broad sense, die casting includes die casting and die casting, low pressure casting, centrifugal casting, etc .; narrowly defined die casting refers to the metal die casting of the die casting machine, referred to as die casting. These kinds of casting processes are the most commonly used in non-ferrous metal casting, and they are also the least expensive.
Sand casting is a traditional casting process that uses sand as the primary molding material to make a fixture and jigs.
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What Is The Manufacturing Process Of Metal Castings?

What is forging

What is forging

Forging refers to the processing method of pouring the solidified material into the mold of a specific shape after it is liquid at room temperature and then setting it. Metal Forging is an early metal thermal processing technology that has been grasped by mankind. It has a history of about 6000 years.

China has entered the heyday of bronze castings between about 1700 and 1000 BC, and technically has reached a suitably high level. The materials to be cast are mostly metals that are solid but heated to the liquid state (for example: copper, iron, aluminum, tin, lead, etc.), and the information of the mold can be sand, metal or even ceramic. In response to different needs, the methods used will be different.

Forging is one of the fundamental technologies of the modern machinery manufacturing industry, so the development of the forging industry marks the production strength of a country. According to 2008 statistics, China’s annual output of 33.5 million tons of castings is the largest country in the international forging list.

We have the most professional engineering team to provide customers with the highest quality and economical product design solutions. Mold manufacturing, precision casting, machining, surface treatment, Email: [email protected]

what is forging?